Figure 425 Data forwarding in ANODR in Visual Studio .NET

Drawing Code 128B in Visual Studio .NET Figure 425 Data forwarding in ANODR
Figure 425 Data forwarding in ANODR
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46 ANONYMOUS ROUTING PROTOCOLS
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route replies Optimizations whereby intermediate nodes send the route replies if they have the path to the destination are not possible under ANODR 462 MASK
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MASK [67, 68] is another routing protocol intended to prevent traf c analysis As in case of ANODR, this protocol provides countermeasures against traf c analysis from passive adversaries MASK facilitates routing without disclosing the identity (and hence the location) of the mobile nodes MASK is similar to ANODR in the sense that packets are routed based on link identi ers instead of real node identities In order to facilitate the working of MASK, a node needs to run its MAC interface in the promiscuous mode This allows the node to receive all MAC frames broadcast in its neighborhood In addition, every node also needs to be able to manipulate the source addresses of the outgoing MAC frames (as was done in ANODR) MASK uses the following phases to reach its objective:
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anonymous neighborhood authentication; anonymous route discovery; and data forwarding
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The rst phase of neighborhood authentication is used to authenticate nodes anonymously In addition, this phase also results in setting up of dynamically changing pseudonyms (also called linkIDs) and the corresponding keys between neighboring nodes Hence, the nodes will not have to use their real identi ers such as network layer addresses or MAC addresses for communication During the anonymous route discovery phase the routes are set up using these linkIDs and the corresponding keys The data is then routed between the source and the destination during the data forwarding phase We explain these phases in detail next The authors use the technique of bilinear pairing [69, 70] in their approach9 Every node before deployment is assumed to be provided with a set of pseudonyms and the corresponding secret points by a trusted authority (TA) Each secret point is connected to the pseudonym using the system secret The system secret is known only to the TA In addition, each node also knows of various system parameters such as a system wide function f ( ) with certain special properties [speci cally, f( ) is a bilinear map] as well as two different hash functions H1 and H2 The anonymous neighborhood authentication phase is shown in Figure 426 Consider two parties, Alice and Bob, who need to authenticate each other Each of these parties has a set of pseudonyms and the corresponding secret point, as shown in the gure Note that H1 () is a hash function The secret point of each party is only known to the party and the TA The TA calculates the secret point for each party using the pseudonym and a system parameter denoted as g Assume that Alice initiates the authentication In this case, Alice picks one of its pseudonyms and sends this information to Bob along with a nonce n1 as shown in Figure 426 The secret point corresponding to Alice is known only to Alice Bob on receiving this information computes a common key KBA by using his own secret point and a hash of the pseudonym used by Alice as f[Bob s secret point, H1(Alice s pseudonym)] Note that Bob is only aware of the pseudonym of Alice and not her identity
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We do not explain the details of bilinear pairing since we explain the principles at a high level without getting into the mathematical details
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SECURE ROUTING
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Figure 426 Anonymous neighborhood authentication
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Following this Bob determines its own nonce n2 He then calculates a ticket (denoted as ticketB) as a hash of the common shared key, pseudonym of Alice (PSA), Bob s own pseudonym (PSB), as well as the two nonces n1 and n2 The ticket is calculated as H2(KBA kPSAkPSBkn1kn2k0), where H2 is another hash function Bob then transmits a message to Alice The message includes Bob s own pseudonym, which is Bellcor in this case, the ticket and the nonce n2 Alice on receiving this message can also calculate the common key KAB as f[H1(Bob s pseudonym], Alice s secret point) The properties of function f() ensure that this key is the same as KBA calculated by Bob (assuming that both Bob and Alice are given the corresponding pseudonyms and secret points by the TA accurately) Alice also calculates if ticketB provided by Bob is valid by computing H2(KABkPSAkPSBkn1kn2k0) If the ticket is valid, then Alice calculates another ticket (denoted as ticketA below) as H2(KABkPSAkPSBkn1kn2k1) Alice then transmits a message with this ticket to Bob, who can then verify it As a result of the veri cation of these tickets, both Alice and Bob are convinced that they both belong to the same group Note that the identity of either party is not known to the other This completes the anonymous neighborhood authentication phase To summarize, the following message exchange is used in this phase: 1 Alice ! Bob: ,Alice s pseudonym (PSA), n1 2 Bob ! Alice: ,Bob s pseudonym (PSB), ticketB, n2 3 Alice ! Bob: ,ticketA Alice and Bob then calculate L pairs of link identi ers to be used for the link between them and the shared session keys to be used with each link identi er Each pair of neighboring nodes thereby shares multiple link identi ers uniquely, that is, no two links have the same link identi er, while the same link has multiple link identi ers Hence, when one node broadcasts a packet identi ed by the link identi er, only the neighboring node which shares this link identi er can interpret and accept the packet These link identi ers (linkIDs) and the shared session keys are used in the routing process The anonymous route discovery in MASK is similar to that in AODV The difference, though, is in the use of the anonymity property Each node maintains four tables:
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