ANONYMOUS ROUTING PROTOCOLS in Visual Studio .NET

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46 ANONYMOUS ROUTING PROTOCOLS
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Figure 423 Header of an LSU message
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the radius R of its zone in the RLSU eld It then selects a random number x and applies a hash function on the number h(x) h(x) is put in the hops_traversed eld and h R(x) in the zone_radius eld Subsequent nodes that forward the LSU apply the hash function on the hops_traversed eld and replace that eld with the new value Thus we have hops_traversed h(hops_traversed) The SLSP_LUS_SEQ contains a 32-bit sequence number that is increased monotonically with new LSUs generated by the node The node also appends the signature into the LSU_signature eld The TTL value of the IP packet is set to R 2 1 so that routing advertisements stay within the zone It is also possible that the certi ed key is attached by the node to the LSU message itself (rather than in the periodic broadcast of the key) That ensures that the node receiving the LSU will be able to verify the message A node that is within the zone of the originator of an LSU most likely has the public key of the originator When such a node receives the LSU message it can verify the authenticity of the message Authenticity of the message is veri ed as follows The node checks the hops_traversed eld The node knows the number of hops the message has already traveled which is the zone radius R minus the TTL value in the current packet (the TTL value is decreased by one at each hop) Therefore, the node applies the hash function TTL times on the hops_traversed eld and compares it with the zone_radius eld [which equals h R(x)] The two values should be equal: hTTL (hops traversed) hTTL hR TTL (x) hR (x) zone radius If the LSU is validated, the node decrements the TTL, applies the hash function to the hops_traversed eld and then rebroadcasts the LSU The LSU is only kept until an LSU from the other side of the link is also received When the LSU is con rmed it is used for updating routes on the node, otherwise the LSU is discarded There is still a possibility that two nodes may collude to advertise a nonexisting link SLSP can not prevent such attacks
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ANONYMOUS ROUTING PROTOCOLS
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The routing protocols that we have discussed so far in this chapter focus on ensuring that the information propagated by the routing protocol is authentic A facet of routing that has not been considered by these routing protocols is traf c analysis Traf c analysis is a
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SECURE ROUTING
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passive attack where an adversary observes the network traf c in order to obtain sensitive information about the communicating entities The information could be related to the identities of the communicating parties, or to the network traf c patterns or even to the changes in the traf c pattern For example, in a network formed on the battle eld, such information could be used to infer locations of command centers or could be used to infer impending activity Routing protocols such as SAODV or Ariadne use the xed node identi ers in plaintext during the routing process As a result of this, adversaries can easily perform traf c analysis Prevention of traf c analysis requires a routing protocol that maintains the anonymity of nodes in the network Such anonymous routing protocols are orthogonal to the secure routing protocols that we have seen earlier The next two routing protocols, namely ANODR and MASK, are such anonymous routing protocols designed to prevent traf c analysis in ad hoc networks These protocols do this by hiding the sender and/or the recipient s identity from an outside observer This makes it impossible in some cases and harder in others for an adversary to correlate eavesdropped traf c information to network traf c patterns The approach here is to remove the identities of the nodes present in the packet Instead, the packets make use of link identi ers These link identi ers are created between two neighbors and hence an intended receiver can easily recognize a packet destined for it On the other hand, the link identi er appears as a random number to other nodes Further, these link identi ers change for every link due to which an adversary will not be able to trace the path of a packet We explain these protocols next, starting with ANODR
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