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Figure 71 Localization example
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Schemes based on ultrasound, infrared, Bluetooth, and 80211 RF networks using the above approach have also been proposed Schemes that estimate the location based on measuring a different parameter during the ranging phase have also been proposed Some such parameters include time difference of arrival, angle of arrival, received signal strength indicator (RSSI) with RF networks, and so on As we will see later, there are drawbacks with these measurement-based location estimation approaches due to which other schemes based only on observations have also been suggested Such observation-based location estimation approaches obviate the need for precise measurements In this case the ranging phase consists of range estimates based on observations The information gathering required during the ranging phase of the operation of a location-determination system typically consists of two main components that make for the two-tier network architecture One of the two tiers forms the reference system and is made from a small number of nodes called the locators or anchor points These are the reference points such as node B that we saw in our earlier example These anchors are capable of determining their own location either through GPS (Section 72111) or through manual con guration during deployment It need not always be true12 that locators make up the reference system, although in this chapter we do not consider other types of reference systems The second of the two tiers is made up of a large number of resource constrained regular devices, also called system nodes in this chapter Locators as well as the more ordinary and numerous system nodes are randomly deployed and communicate in the ad hoc mode The system nodes infer their location using the spatial relationship (distance between themselves and the anchors) between themselves and the reference points while leveraging the fact that the locations of the reference points are known In order to allow the system nodes to infer the spatial relationship, the reference points transmit beacons The beacons are then used by the system nodes to estimate the spatial relationships (distance between themselves and the anchors) using measurements of basic properties such as time of arrival, time difference of arrival, angle of arrival, received signal strength, or hop based distance Each system node can then estimate its own location when it has enough measurements from different beacons The measurements obtained from the beacons corresponding to different locators can be considered as the
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12 For example, the position and orientation of a mobile robot can be obtained from the visual cues obtained from the color cylinders placed in the eld of view of the robot [141] In this case the reference system can be assumed to be that given by the color cylinders
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72 LOCALIZATION
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Figure 72 The stages of localization
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constraints that the location of the system node must satisfy Using this approach the estimation of the location would involve obtaining a mathematical solution that satis es these constraints while minimizing the estimation error The information contained in the beacons would depend on the measurements as well as on the method to infer the location from the measurements Typically the location of the anchor that is the source of the beacon is carried in the beacon Additional information might also be contained in the beacon, depending on the scheme For example, information about the signal strength at the transmitter might be contained in the beacons in systems based on the received signal strength method13 An implicit assumption above is that the system nodes would be computing their own locations, but this need not always be so A complementary system could be designed where the locators or some other special nodes in the system have the responsibility to compute the location of the system nodes Of course in this case the system nodes would have to either transmit the information that they collected from the beacons or transmit other signals to the locators We summarize this discussion in Figure 72, where we show the various stages involved in determining the location of a system node in a network We next brie y explain several different localization schemes We consider the ranging and computation phases separately We rst consider the ranging phase in Section 721 and explain the different type of ranging techniques Following that, we focus on the computation phase in Section 722 and point out the several algorithms that are typically used in this phase We would like to remark here that there has been much of work related to location determination, but the emphasis in a vast majority of these schemes is on determining the location while assuming that none of the users in the system is malicious Many of these localization schemes can be easily hijacked by an adversary, resulting in incorrect location estimation by the nodes in the network On account of this as well as the need for location accuracy, secure localization is receiving a lot of attention from researchers We will discuss secure localization in the next section 721 Ranging
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We consider two main families of ranging schemes The rst type, the range-dependent scheme, involves measuring some quantities from the beacons The other type, the
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Note that proposals for beaconless schemes also exist [142], but we do not consider those in this chapter
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