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The copy of EMACS that you will find on modern distributions of Linux doesn't have a whole lot of Richard Stallman left in it it's been rewritten umpteen times by many other people over the past 20odd years Where the Stallman legacy persists most strongly is in the GNU compilers There are a number of them, but the one that you must understand as thoroughly as possible is the GNU C Compiler, gcc (Lowercase letters are something of an obsession in the Unix world, a fetish not well understood by a lot of people, myself included) Why use a C compiler for working in assembly Two reasons: Most of Linux and all of the standard C library for Linux are written in C for gcc The C library is the only reasonable way to communicate with Linux from an assembly program Gcc has a great deal of intimate knowledge of the standard C library that you'll need to learn if you choose not to use it Love Linux, love gcc There's no way around it More interestingly, gcc does much more than simply compile C code It's a sort of Swiss army knife development tool In fact, I might better characterize what it does as building software rather than simply compiling it In addition to compiling C code to object code, gcc governs both the assembly step and the link step Assembly step Yes, indeedy There is a GNU assembler, gas And a GNU linker, ld What gcc does is control them like puppets on strings If you use gcc (especially at the beginner level), you don't have to do much messing around with gas and ld Let's talk more about this
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Assembly language work is a departure from C work, and gcc is first and foremost a C compiler So, we need to look first at the process of building C code On the surface, building a C program for Linux
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using the GNU tools is pretty simple Behind the scenes, however, it's a seriously hairy business While it looks like gcc does all the work, what gcc really does is act as master controller for several GNU tools, supervising a code assembly line that you don't need to see unless you specifically want to Theoretically, this is all you need to do to generate an executable binary file from C source code: gcc eatcc -o eatc Here, gcc takes the file eatcc (which is a C source code file) and crunches it to produce the file eatc (The -o option tells gcc what to name the executable output file) Note well that in the Linux world, executable files typically do not have file extensions, as they do under DOS and Windows What might be eatccom or eatcexe under DOS is simply eatc under Linux However, there's more going on here than meets the eye Take a look at Figure 121 as we go through it In the figure, shaded arrows indicate movement of information Blank arrows indicate program control
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Figure 121: How gcc builds Linux executables The programmer invokes gcc from the shell command line gcc takes control of the system and immediately invokes a utility called the C preprocessor, cpp The preprocessor takes the original C source code file and handles certain items like #includes and #defines It can be thought of as a sort of macro expansion pass on the source code file, if "macro expansion pass" means anything to you If not, don't fret it it's a C thing and not germane to assembly work When cpp is finished with its work, gcc takes over in earnest From the preprocessed source code file, gcc generates an assembly language source code file with a s file extension This is literally the assembly code equivalent of the C statements in the original c file, in human-readable form If you develop any skill in reading AT&T assembly syntax and mnemonics, you can learn a lot from inspecting
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the s files produced by gcc When gcc has completed generating the assembly language equivalent of the C source code file, it invokes the GNU assembler, gas, to assemble the s file into object code This object code is written out in a file with a o extension The final step involves the GNU linker, ld The o file contains binary code, but it's only the binary code generated from statements in the original c file The o file does not contain the code from the standard C libraries that are so important in C programming Those libraries have already been compiled and simply need to be linked into your application The linker ld does this work at gcc's direction The good part is that gcc knows precisely which of the standard C libraries need to be linked to your application to make it work, and it always includes the right libraries in their right versions So, although gcc doesn't actually do the linking, it knows what needs to be linked and that is valuable knowledge indeed, as you will learn if you ever try to invoke ld manually At the end of the line, ld spits out the fully linked and executable program file At that point, the build is done, and gcc returns control to the Linux shell Note that all of this is typically done with one simple command to gcc!
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