Figure 3-2 APIs supported by J2EE containers in Java

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Figure 3-2 APIs supported by J2EE containers
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There is considerable opportunity for J2EE containers to interoperate with technologies that live outside a J2EE environment For example, a Web container can use the HTTP, HTTPS, or IIOP protocols for communicating with other objects and systems Table 3-2 summarizes the basic interoperability capabilities of the four types of containers There are many details of the J2EE spec that we could cover at this point Rather than discuss all of them, we will focus on those that will play a role later in our discussions about scalability and performance
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Table 3-1 J2EE Services and APIs Service HTTP HTTPS RMI-IIOP Java Database Connectivity Java Naming and Directory Interface Java Message Service Purpose Message-based Web communication Message-based secure Web communication protocol RMI accessibility for CORBA objects Database management Resource identification and state management Asynchronous messaging between containers
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Java Interface Definition Language Access to CORBA objects outside of a J2EE deployment JavaMail Notification via e-mail
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JavaBeans Application Framework (Required by Java Mail) Java Transaction API Transaction management
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Table 3-1 J2EE Services and APIs Service Java API for XML Parsing Java Connectors Java Authentication and Authorization Parsing XML Container access to Enterprise Information Systems Security within J2EE containers Purpose
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Table 3-2 J2EE Container Interoperability Container Type Application Applet Web EJB HTTP, SSL EJB, IIOP, SSL Inbound Protocols Outbound Protocols HTTP, SSL, IIOP, JRMP HTTP, SSL, IIOP, JRMP HTTP, SSL, IIOP, JRMP HTTP, SSL, IIOP, JRMP
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Deployment Issues
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In this book, we will not be covering things like how to run a certain implementation of the J2EE or the exact details of variations of J2EE across vendors In fact, we'll generally ignore detailed deployment issues, because they tend to be highly vendor specific and relate more to J2EE operation than architecture and design Nevertheless, it is useful at this point to say a few things about how a J2EE application is packaged and deployed Later, when I refer to something as being a deployment issue, it is often related to one or more of the aspects that I'm going to cover here
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Packaging
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In terms of packaging, a J2EE application is stored in a file with an ear extension (hereafter called an EAR file) An EAR file is the same as a jar (JAR) file, except that it refers to an enterprise Java application archive, not just to a Java application archive Another important type of file is the Web application archive, or war (WAR) file, which archives files related to servlets and their JSP pages An EAR file can contain one or more of the following:
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JAR files for each EJB component JAR files for each application client (if any) WAR files for each servlet and set of related JSPs
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The EJB and application client JARs contain the relevant class files, any related files, and something called a deployment descriptor (more about this in a moment) The WAR files contain servlet class files, static Web resources such as GIF files, a set of related files (ie, utility Java classes), and a deployment descriptor file To get a feel for what an EJB JAR file looks like, consider a JAR file for a sample EJB called BenefitSession (this EJB will appear in a later example) Here are its contents:
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BenefitSession/
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EjbBenefitSessionbeanclass EjbBenefitSessionRemoteclass EjbBenefitSessionHomeclass META-INF/ ejb-jarxml
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The relationship between what is assembled and what is deployed is shown in Figure 3-3 As you can see, WAR and JAR files are the guts of a J2EE application EAR file, which is deployed as a J2EE server Figure 3-3 J2EE service packaging and deployment
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Deployment Descriptor Files
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A deployment descriptor file is simply an XML file that typically contains structural, assembly, and runtime information about J2EE components A J2EE application consists of a deployment descriptor for the application as a whole and specific deployment descriptor files for each component as necessary The information in a descriptor file has to do with the component assembly (eg, the names of EJB interface classes), security information (eg, definitions and applications of roles), and other runtime dependencies and information Part of a sample EJB deployment descriptor file is shown here This snippet indicates something about the structure of the object (ie, its attributes and relationships) and its resource dependencies (ie, database information):
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<persistence-type>Container</persistence-type> <cmp-field><field-name>first_name</field-name></cmp-field> <cmp-field><field-name>last_name</field-name></cmp-field> <cmp-field><field-name>hire_date</field-name></cmp-field> <resource-ref> <res-ref-name>employee</res-ref-name> <res-type>javaxsqlDataSource</res-type> <res-auth>Container</res-auth>
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