Application Requirements in Java

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Every application has requirements that specify the functionality it must support Web applications are no different in that they must provide the features necessary to achieve a productive goal Obviously, business requirements are part of any application, but there are two other classes of requirements worth discussing data management and interface We'll look at all three in turn
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Business Logic
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The business logic requirements are the most important part of any Web application These requirements specify which business processes should be captured (in some way) by the application For example, a banking application is typically required to support the ability to transfer funds and view account history How these requirements are met in terms of the user interface is a separate issue For example, whether account management is accomplished though a Java applet or a set of HTML pages is irrelevant Generally speaking, if key business requirements are not met, the application has little value Applications obviously vary wildly when it comes to these business requirements Banking applications have one set of requirements; event-ticketing applications have another Still, there are some general observations that can be made, regardless of industry and processes First, application code that corresponds directly to any normally manual business practice (such as transferring funds from one bank account to another) is typically referred to as business logic Thus, business logic is the set of operations required to provide the advertised service In its most basic form, this logic is simply a collection of functions, each composed of a sequence of steps with some meaningful purpose, such as the transfer of funds from one account to another Second, business logic should be dynamic or customizable We should be able to replace or modify it without having to rebuild the entire application In fact, for many applications, dynamic business logic is a requirement For example, news-filtering applications have filtering criteria and employee benefits management applications have eligibility rules Having customizable business logic means that the logic itself (or its parameters) might need to be stored in a database
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Data Management
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Think of business logic as the pipes of a Web application, and the data associated with the application as the water that flows through them That is, business logic and application data go hand in hand For example, a ticket reservation system is meaningless without tickets to reserve, just as a banking application is meaningless without bank customers While data may not actually be part of the business logic, its existence gives the business logic a purpose and provides evidence of the value of that logic Data management has to do with reliable, fair, secure, and efficient access to the data We want to be able to store lots of data, access it quickly, and relate it to each other As we will discuss shortly, databases are the primary mechanism used to meet these requirements They enable the modeling of data (representation) and its persistence (reliability); they support transactions on that data (fairness and order); they provide security; and they are typically fast (efficiency)
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Users of an application will access it via Web browsers, standard telephones, cell phones, or personal digital assistants (PDAs) Typically, all application functionality is accessible from Web browsers, but limited parts of the application can be accessible from the other interfaces as well We will focus on Web browsers, since nearly every application needs to deal with them, and will give selected attention to the other interface technologies All the while, our goal will be to avoid situations where we have to develop copies of either application data or functionality For example, we don't want to discuss how to build a great Web application whose functionality cannot be reused by a different interface such as a wireless or voice-response technology Although it's not a major focus of this book, there are ways to optimize your site so that it works better with one browser than with another Also, different levels of support for browser-dependent technologies, such as JavaScript, Cascading Style Sheets (CSS), and dynamic HTML (DHTML)
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can have ramifications for server-side scalability For example, if we can be sure that a certain level of JavaScript/CSS/DHTML compatibility is supported by all of our clients, we might be able to implement a stylish user interface at a fraction of the normal cost, thereby reducing our serverside data transfer levels There are two major browsers at the time of this writing: Microsoft Internet Explorer (IE) and AOL/Netscape Navigator In mid-1998, the Gartner Group and others studied the browser market and found that IE and Navigator had roughly equal shares of the market This was a major shift from what was previously Netscape-dominated territory, so it was big news Since then, Netscape has rapidly lost ground and the company has been purchased by America Online Nevertheless, despite missing an entire version (Netscape 5), Navigator continues to exist in the form of Netscape 6 The most recent results from BrowserWatchcom (although unscientific) indicate that IE has at least 85 percent of the browser market The rest is made up of Netscape and a collection of more recent browsers, such as Opera It is not worthwhile to spend time discussing how to code for one browser over another There are plenty of books out there on such topics, and it is a landscape that will continue to change Instead, we'll take a simpler-is-better approach Since browser differences are likely to persist for years to come, it is better to know how to build Web applications that speak the most common version of the language of Web layout and presentation (ie, HTML and XML) Thus, our interface requirements will simply be sufficiency, clarity, optimization for lowbandwidth as much as generically possible, and browser independence
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