As a component technology, Web services enjoy the benefits of in Java

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As a component technology, Web services enjoy the benefits of
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Loose coupling: There's no need for the client to be tightly integrated with the server or its component technology Communication is simple, founded on XML-style messaging over a network Programmatic access: Right now, it's possible to use Web browsers to execute remote functions, such as checking weather temperatures, stock prices, and loan rates However, we normally access this information visually It's difficult, if not impossible, to write code that programmatically accesses that functionality in particular, the data returned (ie, an HTML Web page) must be reliably parsed and the embedded data manually typed However, intelligent agents and other computer programs want an easy way to access remote functionality programmatically, and Web services provide that
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Nearly all the features suggested by the points just listed are summarized in Figure 12-1, which shows how a remote function that generates price quotes can be remotely accessed More specifically, clients both human and automated can invoke remote object functionality via Internet protocols such as HTTP, making requests and receiving responses All they need to know is where the functionality they want is located Communication of input and output is accomplished in a platform-independent manner (SOAP) and its content is encoded using a self-describing markup language (XML) Figure 12-1 Web service features
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Now that we have a rough idea of what a Web service is and how it's accessed, let's survey some of the technologies that are essential to its publication and use
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Web Services Technologies
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Web services technology isn't being pushed by any one company Instead it's a common vision communicated by participants from a number of companies from rivals like Microsoft and Sun to relative unknowns like UserLand and young upstarts like Ariba This vision has been translated into a set of continually evolving standards, much like the evolving standard of HTML Standardization is coordinated by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) However, those actually implementing Web service technologies based on W3C standards vary from very small open-source groups to very large corporations
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The purpose of this section is to survey the Web services landscape Specifically, a brief definition of the individual technologies is provided so that you can see what they're all about and how they fit together In the following sections, I provide more detail about each technology XML The Extensible Markup Language (XML) happens to be the de facto language of Web service technology However, it also has the more general purpose, within the confines of Internet technology, of simply making data portable Like HTML, XML is a markup language that has its roots in SGML; thus, it's a specification for "tagging" documents in a meaningful way Unlike HTML, which provides only a means for visualizing data, XML allows data to be self-describing and structured and so is meant primarily for the interchange of data, not for its visualization (although that's supported too) XML is human legible (ie, it looks very similar to HTML and can be read by anyone) and is the language by which Web service requests are issued and corresponding responses are delivered SOAP
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The Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) describes how to invoke a Web service and process its response It's thus very similar to distributed object technologies, such as CORBA and EJB, but consists of a text-based protocol, which makes it an interoperability abstraction above them With SOAP, communication between caller and callee involves an exchange of SOAP envelopes, which contain XML-based parameters of the request, how to process it, and rules for how to transform data within the envelope XML-based SOAP can be transported via HTTP and RPC WSDL The Web Services Description Language (WSDL) describes a Web service Thus, it functions similarly to IDL in CORBA or an interface in Java in that it represents a declaration (or guarantee) of functionality that is unrelated to its implementation WSDL is generally considered a more flexible approach to the IDL or Java style of publishing interfaces because it adds a layer of indirection that gives designers more options when it comes to implementation UDDI The Universal Description, Discovery, and Integration (UDDI) effort facilitates the registration and lookup of Web services More specifically, it makes it easy for providers to publish available functionality and for consumers/users to locate remote functionality Thus, UDDI operates somewhat like a registry or a name server for a distributed object system it eliminates the need for clients to worry about where a service is and instead provides yellow-page-like lookup services In conjunction with other technologies, it extends the traditional notion of a name server by including metadata about each service, thus encouraging the "discovery" of services
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