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Any existing PA addresses
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Any existing PI addresses
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Confirm the site is single-homed to you
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automating your address management, not to show ideal routing configuration These templates assume a simple single-homed topology from customer to POP (Figure 515) Figure 516 shows a template, using Cisco configuration language, of how the remote site router could be configured as well as the basic DNS entries for the customer Figure 517 shows the equivalent part of the aggregation router configuration, which needs to be merged into an existing configuration This configuration fragment assumes that you want DNS names assigned to all your router interfaces, which certainly can make reading traceroutes easier
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Provider Distribution Router FR Int
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FR Int Customer Router
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Figure 515 Basic topology from customer inwards
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int e0 ip addr (lanPrefix + 14) 255255255240 int S0rmtDLCI ip addr (wanPrefix + 2) 255255255252 ip route 0000/0 (wanPrefix+1) ---------------------------------------<router-e0> IN A (lanPrefix + 14) (lanPrefix+14) IN PTR <router-e0> <router-s0-DLCI> IN A (wanPrefix + 2) (wanPrefix + 2) IN PTR <router-s0-DLCI> ! SOA,NS, MX, firewall, etc as necessary
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Figure 516 Remote site template
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ip route (lanPrefix) /mask (wanPrefix + 2) int S0distDLCI ip addr (wanPrefix + 1) 255255255252 ! blackhole as appropriate ---------------------------------------<distrouter-s0-DLCI> IN A (wanPrefix + 1) (wanPrefix + 2) IN PTR <distrouter-s0-DLCI>
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Figure 517 Customer delta to aggregation router
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5 Table 522 Basic Per-Router Configuration Worksheet ROUTING PROTOCOL AND IDENTIFIER (FOR EXAMPLE, AS NUMBER)
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ROUTER NAME (YOUR ADMINISTRATIVE ID)
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Documentation
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Tables 522 and 523 are examples of some of the documentation you will want to keep for each router You will find more specific BGP information in s 9 and 10 You might wonder what kind of policy information is appropriate on nonBGP routers A good example is an ingress router that advertises RIP default so local hosts can find it, but does not accept any routes for security reasons
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Requesting More Space
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It has been my experience that, contrary to some popular opinion, regional registries are not there to torment people Properly filling out the forms, auditing your customer address usage, following best current practice, and supplying technical documentation with your request when you want to do something unusual all go a long way in helping you get addresses The registries typically have different templates for requesting additional space One of the more challenging parts of the process can be when your main assignment is provider-dependent space from an upstream, but you are now
Table 523 Per-Interface Configuration ROUTING PROTOCOL AND PROCESS IDENTIFIER (FOR EXAMPLE, AS NUMBER) ROUTER NAME BGP ROUTER ID INTERFACE ID AND IP ADDRESS NEIGHBOR IP ADDRESS ADVERTISING POLICY FOR THIS INTERFACE ACCEPTANCE POLICY FOR THIS INTERFACE
Administration, Addressing, and Naming
ready to justify your own provider-independent allocation You can t wave a flag and instantaneously renumber everything, so transition is part of the challenge Specific multihoming requirements may still mean that you have to advertise part of the PA space from one or more upstreams If you had a /19 today and needed more space, you d probably get a far better reception if you asked for a /18 into which you agreed to renumber your existing space, rather than another random /19 The principle of routability and the encouragement of aggregation is the reason the registries will not give out small allocations (typically longer than /20) unless special circumstances apply They (and the routing community) want the small blocks to aggregate into larger blocks, and it is the larger providers that have the larger blocks
Autonomous Systems
Once you have the address space, you apply separately for an AS number The same registries that control address space control AS space Templates for applying for AS numbers are found on the registry Web pages Strictly speaking, having registered address space and a valid AS number are sufficient to participate in global Internet routing Stopping here, however, will in practice mean that you will not be able to reach significant parts of the Internet Many large providers automatically generate their BGP configurations to accept updates only from ASs with policies registered in a routing registry Some providers also filter on prefix length, and will not accept a prefix longer than /19 or /20 Indeed, the actual rules may be considerably more complex: Longer prefix lengths may be acceptable if from the traditional class C space, but not from the traditional class A or B space The filtering providers, to varying extents, keep track of when part of the traditional A or B space has been made available in CIDR blocks Exceptions to this policy can often be negotiated when you are multihoming See wwwnanogorg for information on provider filtering, and also specifically ask your upstream provider about its filtering policies [RFC 1930] established a block of private AS numbers The top 1K from 65535 down is similar to the private IP address ranges established by RFC 1918 Use these numbers for internal testing Private AS numbers also are used in situations such as internally for enterprises that use BGP to create a backbone of backbones, such as multiple OSPF domains interconnected with BGP Private AS numbers also are used when passing information to a single ISP that does not propagate the details of that information to the rest of the Internet The originating AS can be stripped by a variety of methods described in 10 The previous chapter explained how the AS is the basic building block of global routing In your request for an AS number, the registry will expect you to provide the information listed in Table 524
5 Table 524 Requesting an AS Administrative contact Technical contacts Autonomous system name Router description Deployment schedule Hardware and operating system In general, you will be expected to give installation dates for two or more upstream providers