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addresses Indeed, your provisioning operations for DNS, firewalls, assignment to router interfaces, and so on, should all center on this database My fundamental rule of address management is: Never type in an address more than once Every other reference should be algorithmically derived from the original entry
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When you are requesting the space, it is wise to categorize what space you now have assigned or allocated, and what space your infrastructure and your customers are using (Figure 511) Bogus space is address space that is assigned to someone else, but that the customer independently decided to use
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You will certainly need space for infrastructure such as router-to-router links, management servers, WAN links to customer routers, dial-up servers, and so on These assignments should be the easiest to document and to clean up if any improper assignments have been made You will need to be able to explain your topology logically (Figure 512) This explanation should identify aggregation boundaries and places where addresses are assigned dynamically Registries will generally want a tabular inventory Believe me, they also appreciate the logical drawing, but their procedures require a table such as Table 520
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Address Space Existing Public Space RFC1918 Private RFC1918 Private Space
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Figure 511 Categorizing address space in use
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Administration, Addressing, and Naming
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Figure 512 Creating a logical topology
Once you have the logical topology in place, you need to be able to propose your actual addressing plan Again, you will need to show 50 percent initial utilization, but this percentage can be flexible The registries will generally understand inefficiencies due to aggregation and consider that a legitimate part of your requirements, if you give a sufficient technical explanation with your application (Figure 513 shows a graphical convention for this, which was taught to me by my colleague Pete Welcher) The addressing plan should indicate any provider-independent space your customers will continue to advertise and any provider-dependent space you will still use Registries also like to see where you propose to conserve public address space by using RFC 1918 private address space, or at least an explanation of why private address space is not feasible for your application
Table 520 RIPE-NCC Address Space Template ADDRESSES USED PREFIX SUBNET MASK SIZE CURRENT 1 YEAR 2 YEARS DESCRIPTION
Totals
5
/19*
128000/20
/23 POP Dial-ups Block A 32 /25 /25 /25 /25 * /30
/23 Internal Block B /25 /25
/23 (4 25) Customers Block C 32 * /28
/23 Customers Block D /24 /24
Figure 513 Preparing a preliminary addressing plan
Operational Step 1: Capturing Customer Administrative Information
For your customer assignment information to be manageable, your order processing needs to begin with capturing some very basic administrative information, such as the customer billing contact and any sales or support people your organization assigns to the account You also need to identify relevant technical contacts at the customer or explicitly recognize that the customer really has no internal technical support In the latter case, you should have a procedure for identifying what technical support the customer will get from you without charge and what is billable If the customer has any DNS domains assigned, you need to know what they are called and where the primary and secondary DNS servers are located
Operational Step 2: Gathering Customer Usage Information
It has been reliably observed that the most important difference between a network sales representative and a seller of used cars is that the seller of used cars knows when he is lying To avoid this situation, one of the first practical guidelines is to ask your customers questions that are meaningful to them, and then translate the answers into the responses the registries want True, some
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customers will understand exactly what the registries need, but the average nontechnical enterprise will not Some basic questions that nontechnical customers are likely to understand include:
How many sites do you have What is your schedule for growth What are your requirements for flow among sites
Working with customers can be challenging, because many customers simply do not want to become involved in the details of address management Even worse, competitors sales representatives may try to convince your potential customers that the competitor will not require the same address justification from them Things get much more complex when the customer wants faulttolerant connectivity, which may mean multihoming Again, complications ensue if customers have multiple data centers or distributed processing but such customers are much more likely to have staff people who understand at least basic IP addressing You should apply some reality checks to customer network descriptions If a customer claims to have 2000 hosts in a single, nonsubnetted network, the customer has problems even more basic than Internet connectivity Your chief problem will tend to be the upper manager who does not want to spend any effort on renumbering or on using assigned space in a manner that in any way limits options or causes inconvenience Thankfully, many enterprises do not need direct Internet access for many of their hosts, so addresstranslating firewalls may greatly simplify the situation Figure 514 shows an actual worksheet I used with a medical applications provider, which made sense to the customer and was useful in eliciting
WATCH OUT FOR USERS WITH SMALL PI SPACE There s no question that users often prefer having PI space If their address allocations are relatively small (longer than /20), however, such small blocks can cause problems Some of these problems include having their routes be filtered out by other providers There are several reasons this can happen Prefix length is an obvious one, but failure by the user to have the prefix registered in a routing registry also can lead to filtering Some providers, once they have gained customer confidence, have been able to convince the user to renumber into PA space and return the PI allocation They do this with more than just good will, also making a contractual commitment to give a comfortable grace period of continuing to let the user use the PA addresses if the user changes to another provider, and working with the other provider to make a smooth transition
MANAGEMENT SERVER SUBNET /28 WAN LINKS TO OTHER DATA CENTERS /30 14-USER DIAL ACCESS SERVER SUBNET /28 60LOCALUSER SUBNET /26 100LOCALUSER SUBNET /25 SMALL CLINIC (11 USERS, SERVER, ROUTER, SWITCH) /28 MEDIUM CLINIC (27 USERS, SERVER, ROUTER, SWITCH) /27