Berkowitz s Pessimistic Postulate of Addressing Design in Visual Studio .NET

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When I am presented with an addressing structure that has N major natural divisions, such as the four nonzero areas just described, I find it good practice to break the address space into at least 4N (and often 8N or 16N) pieces In the real world, user populations rarely split evenly, so too much aggregation can waste space in one area while another area suffers address drought There are pieces of address space available for specialized infrastructure functions such as NAT or firewall demilitarized zones Therefore, if I were responsible for an address plan in which there were four user divisions and a backbone, I d actually use a structure like the one in Table 55, so I might do my initial assignments of addresses to the proposed topology as shown in Figure 59 Note that I assigned contiguous blocks to the main user areas but left space in reserve In this example, I happen to know that area 0002 is heavily populated, so I have given it extra space
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5 Table 55 Finer Granularity in Address Assignment BITS 17 20 AND REMAINDER 00 00 0000 00000000 00 01 0000 00000000 00 10 0000 00000000 00 11 0000 00000000 01 00 0000 00000000 01 01 0000 00000000 01 10 0000 00000000 01 11 0000 00000000 10 00 0000 00000000 10 01 0000 00000000 10 10 0000 00000000 10 11 0000 00000000 11 00 0000 00000000 11 01 0000 00000000 11 10 0000 00000000 11 11 0000 00000000 DOTTED DECIMAL EQUIVALENT 10000/20 101600/20 103200/20 104800/20 106400/20 108000/20 109600/20 1011200/20 1012800/20 1014400/20 1016000/20 1017600/20 1019200/20 1020800/20 1022400/20 1024000/20
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FIXED FIRST 18 00001010 00000000 00001010 00000000 00001010 00000000 00001010 00000000 00001010 00000000 00001010 00000000 00001010 00000000 00001010 00000000 00001010 00000000 00001010 00000000 00001010 00000000 00001010 00000000 00001010 00000000 00001010 00000000 00001010 00000000 00001010 00000000
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The RPSL Components Attribute
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Before delving into this RPSL attribute, a few concepts are in order First, RPSL understands that there can be different sources of routing information, such as BGP, IGPs, and static routes It also understands that policy filters can be applied to the outputs of these routes, as in Table 56 The components attribute identifies the more-specific routes that are combined to form the aggregate Its basic syntax is:
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components: [[<filter>] [protocol <protocol> <filter> ]]
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In the attribute, filter implicitly ANDs with the more-specifics from the sources of routing information, so only the routes that both come from the specified source and match the filter will be included When there is no components attribute associated with a route, it will contain all more-specifics
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Administration, Addressing, and Naming
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Area 0000 Mgt
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POP 1 Area 0001
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POP 2 Area 0002
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POP 3 Area 0003
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POP 4 Area 0004
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Server Farm Area 0005
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Figure 59 OSPF topology with fine-grained addressing
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There is, however, one more option in the components attribute specification BGP-4 includes the ATOMIC_AGGREGATE value, which means that when it has received a set of overlapping routes (for example, less-specific and more-specific), it chooses to select only the less-specific In other words, it chooses not to deaggregate In the full form of the RPSL components attribute:
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components: [ATOMIC] [[<filter>] [protocol <protocol> <filter> ]]
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Putting the ATOMIC tag on a component essentially means, Do what I say, don t try to interpret it
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Table 56 Aggregate Route Objects
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route: 128800/15 origin: AS1 components: <^AS2> route: 128800/15 origin: AS1 components: protocol BGP4 {128800/16^+} protocol OSPF {128900/16^+}
5
IMPLICATIONS OF ATOMIC_ATTRIBUTE You should be aware that the aggregation indicated for a route that is marked with ATOMIC may mean that its actual AS_PATH, as opposed to the AS_PATH attribute, goes through more ASs than the attribute indicates The AS_PATH is still guaranteed to be loop-free, but it does not claim to include every AS the update has traversed
Table 57, from [RFC 2622], is an example where two providers coordinate their aggregation policies They might be doing this because they have a mutual customer in 128800/15, but with parts of that customer network primarily homed either to AS1 or AS2 No part of 128800/15 is outside the two providers A different aggregation policy exists when a customer is connected to two providers and all the address space belongs to one provider In this case, the second provider only needs to export the specific AS1 customer allocation, along with its other advertised routes Due to the logic of BGP, however, AS1 has to export both the aggregate that contains the customer route and the more-specific customer route If AS1 did not do so, the other AS, advertising the more-specific, would be selected by all other ASs that heard its announcement Table 58 is an example of the use of the export-comps attribute in RPSL, which effectively is a filter whose output is the more-specifics that need to be exported In RPSL, a route object can specify an aggregate route, which it does if any of the following components are used to generate it