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Figure 41 ITU TMN model
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tion Policy rules reside in a repository and are distributed to policy enforcement points in real devices (see Figure 42) See the section Service Level Policies later in this chapter for an example of how this framework is used to distribute accounting policy I find the two models can usefully be combined, as shown in Figure 43 The TMN model defines what is to be distributed and the POLICY model gives a framework for how it is to be distributed
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Figure 42 IETF POLICY framework
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Translating Service Definitions to Technical Requirements: Policies
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Element Management Policy Element Data Source Policy Element Network Element Element Management
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Figure 43 Combined TMN and POLICY
The Delicate Balance: But I Wanna Learn BGP!
In this chapter, you will find that I walk a delicate line between the functionality of BGP for conveying policy-related information and the actual behavior of the protocol This is deliberate; I am trying to defer the protocol discussion to s 9 through 12 My personal experience was that I started learning BGP by studying the protocol handshakes and specific router configurations While I was able to do a few cookbook things, I couldn t claim any real understanding until I began to study policy specification At the time, the principal (and limited) policy specification technique was RIPE-181, which has been superceded by the Routing Policy Specification Language (RPSL) [RFC 2622] RPSL itself continues to evolve Until rather recently, it was my claim that it was an urban legend that BGP transmitted actual policies My claim, until recent extensions were made, was that BGP transmitted the information on which policy mechanisms inside routers could make policy decisions These mechanisms were various combinations of pattern-matching rules (for example, filters) and actions to take when patterns were matched The Outbound Route Filtering (ORF) extensions, introduced later in this chapter and discussed in subsequent chapters, actually exchange policy information Until ORF was implemented and it is still experimental and evolving the implementation of policy began with
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higher-level engineering In the TMN model, this engineering treats policy at the network or service levels, and only then maps it into specific router configurations at the element level So, have some patience and learn from my experience there really needs to be a foundation of understanding policy before you truly can understand BGP specifics at a useful level
Returning to Policies
Policies can cover routing, availability, quality of service, fault tolerance, and security Routing policies are well established in the Internet routing community Indeed, the RPSL Working Group has finished its assigned tasks and is no longer active Other IETF groups are dealing with other aspects of policy, particularly quality of service and security These other groups also are dealing with more general means of managing and distributing policy information On a practical basis, there is the most experience operationally with routing policies, specifically RPSL Policies are defined with respect to individual autonomous systems RPSL focuses on the interaction of individual AS with neighboring AS, and explicit AS-SETs made up of fixed entries There are more complex ways to get it to work with less explicitly defined groups of ASs or groups of routes The sidebar shows some good and classic reasons for routing policy Given a wider range of policy actions, additional reasons may begin to be implemented in future routers These include security (both direct protection and detection of denial of service attacks) and advanced accounting and statistics RPSL is not a programming language, although router configuration language can be generated from it Its purpose is to give network operators a formal means of specifying routing policies at different levels of the Internet Its flexibility allows it to be meaningful at the levels of sets of ASs, of individual ASs, and of routers in an AS It is an extensible language to which new capabilities can be added Briefly, RPSL is the replacement for less flexible languages with the same general functions, including RIPE-81 and RIPE-181 It is an object-oriented lanRPSL IS EXTENSIBLE The charter of the RPSL Working Group specifically was developing a language to describe routing policy in the public Internet The language itself, however, is designed to be extensible Some applications of RPSL that simply were out of scope for the Working Group include interior routing and routing policy for VPNs, both intranet and extranet, with potentially overlapping address spaces