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External Router #2 xyz3/24 primary xyz1/24 secondary xyz6/24 unique Default gateway set to xyz3/24 Firewall #2 xyz4 Internal Router 2 #2
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Default gateway set to xyz1/24 Firewall #1 xyz2/24 Internal Router #1
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Figure 221 Router fault tolerance
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Internal Switch/Router 1
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Internal Switch/Router 2
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Odd VLANs Primary Path FastUplink
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Figure 222 Fast recovery in spanning tree
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paths exist in the hierarchy Using a proprietary extension to spanning tree such as Cisco s Fast Uplink feature, where spanning tree would eventually find a single backup bridge/switch at the next level of hierarchy, the hierarchically lower switches simply can be programmed with the address of the backup switch Essentially, the switches are told by the person configuring them, Trust me I m the network engineer There is another emerging approach entering layer 3 routing In the real world, the routing control mechanism can fail, but what that really means is that updated information will not arrive at the router until routing control recovers In telephony, if the SS7 control system fails, calls in progress are not dropped, but new calls cannot be made until the system recovers These new routing approaches use much the same logic They will continue to use the existing FIB to forward packets Over time, the FIB will become increasingly stale, and more and more packets will be sent to incorrect destinations, where they will be dropped There is an underlying optimistic assumption that the routing control system will recover soon, and far less damage will be done by the few misrouted packets than would be by invalidating the entire FIB and refusing to route any packets
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Once a node has topological information, it can apply an algorithm that produces routes Routes can be optimized for next hop behavior or for end-to-end connectivity At the IP level, we have two major methods for producing routes It is not quite appropriate here to use the term algorithm While the major tech-
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niques distance vector, path vector, and link state are associated with certain algorithms, even without additional constraint-based routing, those algorithms are only part of the process Distance vector is not used as the main mechanism of any carrier-class standard routing protocol Path vector is the mechanism of the Border Gateway Protocol, used between providers Link state, the basis for the OSPF and Intermediate System Intermediate System (ISIS) protocols used for intraprovider cores and enterprise routing, uses modified Dijkstra algorithms to calculate intraarea routes, then uses linear methods to add interarea and external routes In modern protocols, flexible metrics can be used at each of these levels, including multiple constraints A constraint can have the semantics of a simple preference factor for a link (for example, bandwidth or delay), but can also involve a concept of resource reservation (for example, decreasing available bandwidth after each reservation, and, after all the resource is allocated, excluding the link from further assignment) or a qualitative policy rule Policy rules are most important for exterior routing, and also may involve consulting the active RIB as well as the routing table generated by a particular information source
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Basic Interior Routing
For IP, link state and distance vector are used for interior routing protocols, called interior gateway protocols (IGPs) for historical reasons Unconstrained IGPs have the following basic assumptions: 1 If you can find a single path to a destination, use it 2 If there is more than one path to a destination, compare metrics
If one of the paths has a lower metric than the others, select it If more than one of the paths have equal metrics, declare them eligible for load sharing
3 If you have no other path to a destination and a default route is defined, use the default route Many additional constraints can apply to these basic rules For example, in OSPF, an intraarea route is always preferable to an interarea or external route regardless of metric; an interarea route is always preferable to an external route; and a type 1 external route is always preferable to a type 2 external route In optical discussions, the term constraint seems to be used in a more restrictive way, often in connection with capacity Yet there are resourcesensitive extensions to IP routing protocols, such as OSPF and ISIS with traffic engineering extensions (OSPF-TE and ISIS-TE), which add data structures for carrying reservation information OSPF and ISIS with optimized multipath extensions (OSPF-OMP and ISIS-OMP) optimize multihop routes based on periodic sampling of utilization throughout the routing domain