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One of the great sources of mismanaged expectations is equating any provider service based on the Internet Protocol (IP) with a provider of services connected to the global, public Internet What s the difference Originally, the term catenet referred to a set of interconnected, separately administered networks networks that were concatenated IP emerged as a basic mechanism to use in
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Figure 216 U/C/M Planes with B-ISDN and IP equivalents
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interconnected networks, and the term internet came into largely academic use for such networks The global Internet (uppercase), as we know it today, is the set of separately administered networks (specifically autonomous systems) that participate in a common addressing scheme and whose connectivity is achieved using the Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) (see the following text) Since there is no single operational authority controlling the Internet, there is no way to enforce service level agreements across it The Internet provides many and useful functions, but it remains the largest successful anarchy in the history of mankind It was said of fascist powers that they at least made the trains run on time If the trains in question are made up of packets, making them run on time in the sense of service level agreements does take some central authority At the very least, it takes a set of contractual agreements among providers, who contract to provide defined levels of service for known traffic
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Routing, as Opposed to Routing: Internet versus Telco Traditions
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It is rather difficult to go anywhere without knowing where you are going You need a set of directions, a map, or a wise guide In networks, we generally speak
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The Service Provider Landscape
of the means by which directions are obtained as part of routing Routing, however, includes many things In many discussions, the subcomponents of routing differ in telecommunications and data contexts On advice of my feline associate, Clifford, who believes fur is one of the essential truths, I shall refer to furbling rather than these overloaded technical terms, and define the architectural components of furbling I will show that it can be approached more generally, with more software and architectural reuse, than we have been doing It s always a bit troubling to discuss even the cost engineering approaches of the US intelligence community, for there is always the concern one will cross that threshold of we could tell you, but then we would have to kill you Trusting that Agents Scully and Mulder will show good sense, I will refer to refinements in the US satellite intelligence collection systems These systems originated and proliferated as stovepipes, with all requirements driven by a particular type of information to be collected: communications intercepts, radar location and surveillance, optical imagery, and so on This resulted in constellations of specific satellites in the same orbit, over the same targets, with incredibly expensive launch and operational costs repeated many times Fairly recently, it was realized that the satellites proper were often characterized more by the nature of their orbit than what they collected Some types of information are best collected from low earth orbit, such as close-look imagery and intercepts of low-power, line-of-sight signals, both communications intelligence (COMINT) and electronic intelligence (ELINT) Other types of information, such as missile early warning, are better collected from high or geosynchronous orbit When the requirements for satellites were recategorized according to where they need to orbit, and combining sensors onto them, costs drop radically And so it is for what we call routing But we may never achieve those improvements in cost and functionality if every group insists on its own terminology, or on its own definitions of words shared by other groups Let me therefore introduce some of the things one does when one furbles
SOME ESSENTIAL CONCEPTS In modern relays (and more about them later in this chapter) the forwarding and control planes are separated At a high level, remember that the routing information base (RIB) contains the assembled knowledge of the control plane The forwarding information base (FIB) is derived from the RIB and distributed to the forwarding plane elements, where it is used to make forwarding decisions