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PE routers are aware of VPNs and map them to LSPs A given PE has knowledge of only those VPNs that are connected to it On each PE is a virtual routing/ forwarding instance (VRF), which it is a RIB/FIB specific to some set of one or more interfaces on which one or more VPNs are defined Each VRF has a set of
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Figure 1314 MPLS/VPN customer connectivity
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P LSR
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Figure 1315 RFC 2547 components
import and export policies appropriate to the VPNs associated with the RIB Implementation of the VRF is conceptual and may be part of the main RIB of the physical PE router Cisco s implementation always includes a FIB, in the form of a Cisco Express Forwarding table A given physical router may contain multiple VRFs Part of the reason for this is to allow the same prefix to be used in multiple VPNs Conceptually, it is at the VRF where the binding is made between the interface on which a packet was received and the route distinguisher that is associated with addresses on the VPN for that interface Why have a VRF Its purpose is to ensure that there are the necessary and sufficient number of routes to provide mutual reachability of sites in the same VPN These routes can belong to an intranet, an extranet, or the general Internet Remember that the fact that a site or VPN has Internet access does not mean that it has to reach the Internet gateway via the RFC 2547 service A vastly simplifying assumption is that CE will have multiple logical uplinks, one to the Internet and one to each VPN The uplink to the Internet must use registered address space It is likely to read multiple default routes, one for the Internet and one per VPN The relationship between sites and VRF is complex A site can connect to only one VRF, even though it may belong to more than one VPN A VRF can contain information on multiple VPNs To start RFC 2547 in most implementations, you will need to configure several pieces of information on each participating
VPNs and Related Services
router Conceptually, there is no reason you could not create RFC 2547 VPNs on a set of cooperating virtual routers, but that makes my mind melt At this point, I ll simply mention the parameters to be configured; see the discussion of 2547 and BGP later in this chapter for more details of these parameters: 1 Allocating the VRF and giving it a name to be used in configuration 2 Associating a route distinguisher with the VRF 3 Associating a list of target communities from which the VRF is to receive routes 4 Associating a list of target communities to which the VRF is to advertise routes Depending on the implementation, there can be more than one VRF per physical router So far, you have tied the VRF into your routing system (Figure 1316) It now needs to be tied to customer sites by associating a VRF with specific interfaces in the interface configuration statements, resulting in the relationships in Figure 1317 The target communities you specify for the VPN restrict the topology reachable from a particular VRF Even though some destinations may be in the same VPN, they may not be reachable from certain routers This adds both the ability to create powerful configurations and the ability to create configurations that require divine intervention to troubleshoot Another way to look at the VRF is that it contains the information on all sites that are owned by the VRF, but not necessarily on the entire VPN Membership in a VPN does not mean that members of a VPN can reach all of its other members; there may be closed user groups and partial mesh topologies For example, you might want the sites connected to router fennel in Figure 1318 to be able to reach the intranet sites connected to garlic and to horseradish, but not the Internet gateway at mustard You would therefore apply appropriate filtering so mustard has a target community that is not exported to fennel Whether or not the communities are ingress- or egress-filtered is not critical as long as the appropriate logic is defined However, outbound route filtering, described in 9, makes this process much more efficient