Evolution to First-Generation Optical Facilities in .NET framework

Creator DataMatrix in .NET framework Evolution to First-Generation Optical Facilities
Evolution to First-Generation Optical Facilities
Recognizing Data Matrix 2d Barcode In VS .NET
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SONET Architecture SONET Speed Hierarchy Packet over SONET
Data Matrix 2d Barcode Creation In Visual Studio .NET
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292 293 294
Scan Data Matrix ECC200 In .NET
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Models for Survivability
Barcode Encoder In Visual Studio .NET
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Protection and Restoration Preemption and Extra Traffic Reversion and Regrooming SONET Recovery
Barcode Decoder In VS .NET
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295 295 296 297
Data Matrix ECC200 Creation In C#.NET
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What Are Carrier Goals for New Optical Technologies Optical Service Offerings
Data Matrix 2d Barcode Encoder In VS .NET
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Characteristics and Constraints of Optical Networks Facilities-Based Services Connection-Oriented Services Optical Virtual Private Networks
Generating Data Matrix ECC200 In VB.NET
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298 298
Code 128 Generator In .NET Framework
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299 300 301 303
Create UPC-A Supplement 5 In VS .NET
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New Facilities
Make Bar Code In .NET
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WDM Resilient Packet Rings (RPRs) Free-Space Metro Optical Broadband Wireless Radio
UPC-E Supplement 2 Encoder In .NET
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304 305 306 306
Bar Code Generation In VS .NET
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Evolution or New Species Circuits without Resources, ATM without Cells, and GMPLS
DataMatrix Creation In Visual Studio .NET
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Issues of non-PSC LSRs GMPLS Requirements for LSP Identification Special Considerations for Lambda Switch Capable (LSC) LSRs
Barcode Creation In Visual Basic .NET
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308 308 308
Encoding Code 128A In Visual Studio .NET
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Contents
Barcode Drawer In C#
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xiii
USS Code 39 Generator In Visual C#.NET
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IP over Optical Looking Ahead
Bar Code Generator In .NET
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9 Basic BGP and the Customer Side of Exterior Routing BGP Never Stands Still BGP, iBGP, and eBGP So What Does BGP Do
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The BGP Stack Protocol Interactions Negotiable Capabilities Attributes
309 310
314 316 318
320 321 324 329
A First Look at iBGP RIBs and Routes
Acceptance Policies and BGP BGP Route Selection Algorithms: IETF and Variants General Route Installation Advertising Policies and BGP
337 338
339 340 340 342
Customer Configuration Requirements Overview Multilinking and Multihoming: The Customer Side
Motivations for Multilinking Non-BGP Multihoming Motivations for BGP Multihoming to One Provider Motivations for Multihoming to Multiple Providers
343 344
345 345 346 346
Starting Simply: Defaults
Asymmetrical Routing
Multihoming to Multiple POPs of a Single ISP
Multihoming to a Single Provider using PA Space
RFC 2270 Multihoming to Two ISPs
Scaling Potatoes AS Path Expressions Selecting and Influencing Outbound Paths Selecting and Influencing Inbound Paths
352 355
355 358 359 361
Importing and Exporting among Routing Protocols
Importing Default into an IGP Blackhole Routes
364 366
Looking Ahead
10 Subscriber to Provider, and Subscriber to Subscriber Edge: IP
Taking Orders
Provisioning AAA and Security Functions in the POP
371 375
Contents
POPs and Layer 2 Switches
Demultiplexing Layer 2 Access Services POP Internal Backbone Multicast Enabling Scalability with MPLS
380 381 382 382
Basic POP Design with Dedicated Customer Access Intra-POP Routing
IGPs for POPs iBGP in the POP
382 383
383 384
POP Design for Dial-up and Other Switched Access Scalability Issues: Protecting the Routing System
Registry Level Peer Groups Routing Security Breaches from Inappropriate Use of RIP Authentication Prefix Limit Outbound Route Filtering and Graceful Restart
387 387
387 388 388 390 390 390
Scalability Issues: Protecting Routed Traffic
Ingress Filtering and Reverse Path Verification Rate Limiting The Role of Firewall Services IPv6
391 392 392 393
The Provider Side of Basic Customer Requirements
Single Homing, Single Link Single-Homed Multilink Multihoming to Single Provider Using PA Address Space: Provider Side Multihoming to Single Provider Using PI Address Space: Provider Side Multihoming to Multiple Providers, Customer Uses Your PA Space Multihoming to Multiple Providers, Customer Uses Another Provider s PA Space Multihoming to Multiple Providers, Customer Uses PI Space
393 393 394 394 394 396 398
Complex Fault-Tolerant Routing with Mutual Design between Provider and Customer
Case Study: RFC 1998 with Internal Links Case Study: Enterprise Providing Basic Transit To Confederate or Not to Confederate
398 401 402
Service Level Classification and the ISP Challenge: When to Oversubscribe, When to Overprovision
Forwarding Equivalence Classes What Interferes with Quality Provider Management of Incoming Traffic from the Subscriber Scheduling Outgoing Traffic to the Core
413 414 415 416
Looking Ahead
Contents
11 The Intraprovider Core: IP/MPLS
Developing Requirements: Pipes, Hoses, and Trunks
Applying Pipes and Hoses Motivations for Traffic Engineering Core and Interprovider Hierarchy From the Edge to the Core
423 425 425 427
Core Routing Scalability
Interior BGP Routing Scalability IGP Scalability Issues
428 435
Core Design Issues in Transition
Is Explicit Routing a Step Backward The Role of Sub-IP
445 446
Traffic Trunks
Recent Background The Almost-Worst and Worst Cases Per-Hop Merging Behavior Merging with Multiple Service Classes Tunneled Trunks
448 449 452 454 454
Core Fault Tolerance
What Can Go Wrong Survivability Concepts and Requirements Understanding Recovery Time
457 457 461
Sub-IP Core Technologies
CCAMP MPLS GSMP
465 465 467
Traffic Engineering Deployment BGP-free Cores Looking Ahead
12 The Provider-to-Provider Border
467 471 471
Interprovider Economics: The Most Important Part
The Trail of Tiers Basic Economic Models Special Cases
475 477 481
Interconnection Strategies: The Second-Most Important Part
Potatoes between Providers Mutual Backup
483 485
What Should You Advertise and Accept
Scope of Advertising From Whom Do You Get Routes When Should They Be Re-advertised Describing Aggregation in RPSL Transit with PA Space
488 492 494 496
Contents
eBGP Scalability and Survivability
Filtering Strange Beings: Smurfs and Martians Quantitative Protections Minimizing Churn
498 500 502
Exchange Point Design and Operation
Route Servers and the NSFNET Layer 3 versus Layer 2 Exchanges Exchange Point Evolution Local Exchanges Layer 2 Alternatives Switches for the Ideal Large Exchange
504 505 506 507 508 510
Special Connectivity Looking Ahead
13 VPNs and Related Services
514 515
When Management Is Outsourced Evolution from Outsourced Management to VPNs Endpoints and Midboxes
Customer Domains CE and PE Devices P Devices
518 519 520
520 523 524
User Perception of VPN Types and Capabilities
Membership and Security Policy Operational Policy Kinds of User Information Carried
526 529 530
VPN Internal Services
Membership and Its Relationship to Signaling Carrying the Data Interprovider Connectivity
532 533 537
Provider-Provisioned VPN Technologies
Multiple Virtual Routers L2 VPNs RFC 2547: MPLS/BGP Virtual Transport Service
538 539 542
Case Study: VPN Connectivity Strategy
The Emerging VPN Strategy The Real Requirements Handling Extranets
550 550 551
Potential Technical Solutions for Magic Images
An L2 VPN solution An MVR Solution A BGP/MPLS Solution
552 552 553
Conclusion
References Index
555 561
Networking Council Foreword
The Networking Council Series was created in 1998 within Wiley s Computer Publishing group to fill an important gap in networking literature Many current technical books are long on details but short on understanding They do not give the reader a sense of where, in the universe of practical and theoretical knowledge, the technology might be useful in a particular organization The Networking Council Series is concerned more with how to think clearly about networking issues than with promoting the virtues of a particular technology how to relate new information to the rest of what the reader knows and needs, so the reader can develop a customized strategy for vendor and product selection, outsourcing, and design In Building Service Provider Networks by Howard Berkowitz, you ll see the hallmarks of Networking Council books examination of the advantages and disadvantages, strengths and weaknesses of market-ready technology, useful ways to think about options pragmatically, and direct links to business practices and needs Disclosure of pertinent background issues needed to understand who supports a technology and how it was developed is another goal of all Networking Council books The Networking Council Series is aimed at satisfying the need for perspective in an evolving data and telecommunications world filled with hyperbole, speculation, and unearned optimism In Building Service Provider Networks you ll get clear information from experienced practitioners We hope you enjoy the read Let us know what you think Feel free to visit the Networking Council web site at wwwwileycom/networkingcouncil Scott Bradner Senior Technical Consultant, Harvard University Vinton Cerf Senior Vice President, MCI WorldCom Lyman Chapin Chief Scientist, NextHop Technologies, Inc