We Can Live in the Commons: SKA in VS .NET

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We Can Live in the Commons: SKA
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SKA is definitely the model among the largest providers, but while often thought to be the basic model of Internet pricing, it works only with providers of roughly equal size It assumes that each service provider bills its customers for the cost of traffic origination, but that there is no financial compensation between providers The underlying assumption is that participants in SKA relationships originate approximately the same amount of traffic, and that it would be more cost and trouble than it would be worth to try to come up with a more precise accounting SKA is the model used among tier 1 providers and providers lower in the hierarchy that consider themselves of approximately equal size SKA is a perfectly reasonable approach for a local exchange, as long as the common cost of the local exchange is covered by membership fees
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Bilateral Private Peering Arrangements
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In bilateral private peering (Figure 124), the two participants agree they have a roughly equivalent amount of information to exchange, and do so without explicit compensation If they have one physical link, they will share the cost Frequently, they use two links to avoid creating a single point of failure, and each provider orders or provides one link Both providers cover their own router costs The link(s) are treated as BGP inter-AS links While the addresses can come from either party, the address space is not normally advertised If the address space is part of an aggregate, external access to the link from other than the two providers space should be restricted
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Bilateral Exchange of Customer Routes
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Figure 124 Bilateral private peering
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Bilateral Exchange Peering Arrangements
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In bilateral peering at an exchange point (Figure 125), each provider negotiates a separate peering agreement with each other provider with which it exchanges routes The difference between private peering and exchange peering is that in private peering only one router and access link runs from the provider to the exchange point The routing exchanges are done through a common fabric The exchange fabric forwards traffic between them based on MAC address or VLAN identifier Depending on the rules of the exchange, one provider may actually sell transit to other peers and be accessed through the fabric In such cases, the subscribers can point default at the transit provider It is extremely bad form to point default at an arbitrary provider at a multilateral exchange
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Multilateral Exchange Peering Arrangements
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At a multilateral exchange, the rules of participating in the exchange require you to exchange customer routes with all other participants Physical connectivity may be identical to that in the bilateral exchange peering arrangement (see Figure 126) Generally, the lower in the food chain the exchange, the more likely it is that the exchange rules will require multilateral peering of customer routes among all participants This does require a full mesh of BGP connections unless a route server is used, which potentially can be a problem with small routers At a multilateral exchange, participants do not and should not advertise default to one another unless one is a direct transit customer of the other Even in that case, it is generally much cleaner to provide transit through a bilateral
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THINGS CAN GET VERY BLURRY Private bilateral peering physically can be no more than a piece of cable or fiber between equipment racks at the premises of an exchange point The exchange operator staff may even run the cable But this sort of connectivity is not bilateral exchange peering unless the connectivity traverses the shared exchange fabric
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The Provider-to-Provider Border
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Shared Fabric
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Figure 125 Bilateral exchange peering
Figure 126 Multilateral exchange peering
private peering cable There may be individual arrangements where equal-level providers provide conditional default to one another as part of mutual backup arrangements At larger multilateral exchanges, some upper-tier providers will advertise their customer routes to some or all participants