The Provider-to-Provider Border in .NET

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lower-level provider grows If you are homed to multiple upstreams, you really need to know routes from each of them to pick the best path and give the best service to your customers Best, of course, can be a subjective choice containing operational, economic, and service-level components There are three basic ways to connect to another provider: buying transit, peering at an exchange point, and private peering All assume different economic relationships between the providers Each will be discussed in detail, but see Table 121 for a basic comparison
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The Trail of Tiers
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The largest service providers interact using an economic model called peering Do not confuse this usage with the use of peering as a synonym for an arbitrary BGP connection The usage discussed here is economic Specifically, economic peering means that the participants do not exchange money for service, with possibly a narrow exception for covering the costs of common functions (for example, transmission lines) owned or operated by one of the participants ISPs and NSPs often are called tier 1 through tier 5 Unfortunately, these categories have no universal meaning, although marketers in the larger providers tend to define tier 1 as whatever they are and their competitor is not
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Table 121 Basic Interprovider Alternatives BUYING TRANSIT Provider-customer Line cost to upstream* Guaranteed bandwidth Router cost Incremental router port cost Simple
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PEERING AT EXCHANGE Equals Access cost to peer Potential congestion Portion of router cost Incremental router port cost More things to go wrong
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PRIVATE PEERING Equals Line cost , Guaranteed Portion of router cost Incremental router port cost Simple
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* The faster the link, the lower the cost per bit With one line, peers split the cost It is quite common to have two links for diversity, each provider paying for one There can be direct physical connections between the participants equipment at exchange points Such connections are dedicated media, usually but not always of minimal cost, and are not subject to third-party congestion
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While this becomes less and less a requirement as you move up the hierarchy of tiers, some large providers may require you to use a dedicated router they specify
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Tier 1 and the Default-Free Zone
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When you have a router in the default-free zone, its routing table contains no default routes You have sufficient routes, learned through many possible sources, to get to any plausible Internet destination without defaulting to any other provider This definition does not preclude a customer, especially a multihomed customer, from being in the DFZ When we speak of tier 1 providers, however, we are referring to providers that do not pay any other provider for transit (See Figure 121) All routes are obtained through bilateral agreements General usage suggests that a tier 1 provider have a national or international backbone with at least OC-3 rates Some providers are asking for OC-12 or OC48 backbones before they will exchange routes In addition, such a provider has a presence at several regional exchange points, and may have private peerings usually, the more the better with other providers high in the food chain Another way of describing tier 1 providers, although unfortunately a circular one, is that tier 1 providers primarily connect with other tier 1 providers Their connectivity is primarily mutual peering; they do not buy transit Their peering and core routers are treated as utterly default free (Figure 122)
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Bilateral Exchange of Customer Routes
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Figure 121 Typical tier 1 provider
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The Provider-to-Provider Border
PLEASE NOTE - THIS ROUTER SHOULD NOT HAVE A DEFAULT ROUTE It is used to connect to AS with reciprocal peering arrangements Such AS MUST NOT be able to default to us The configuration for this router does NOT conform to our corporate backbone standard For information, or to make changes, contact Core Network Engineering at 555-1234