Figure 1121 MPLS recovery cycle in .NET framework

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Figure 1121 MPLS recovery cycle
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Network Impairment Repaired Fault Cleared Path Available Start of Reversion Operation Reversion Operation Complete Traffic Restored on Preferred Path
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---------------------------------------------------------------| T7 | T8 | T9 | T10| T11|
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Timing measures used in the model: T7 Fault Clearing Time T8 Wait-to-Restore Time T9 Notification Time T10 Reversion Operation Time T11 Traffic Restoration Time Note that time T6 (not shown) is the time for which the network impairment is not repaired and traffic is flowing on the recovery path
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Figure 1122 MPLS reversion cycle
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The Intraprovider Core: IP/MPLS Table 1114 Key Recovery and Reversion Cycle Timers Fault detection time Hold-off time Starts with the occurrence of a network impairment and ends with the time the fault is detected by recovery mechanisms Lower-layer protocols may affect this very strongly* The configured waiting time between the detection of a fault and taking MPLS-based recovery action, to allow time for lower layer protection to take effect May be zero In several IP routing protocols, this is called holddown time, but, unfortunately, there are several meanings of holddown time in different routing protocols and implementations The time between the last recovery action and the time the traffic (if present) is completely recovered This interval is intended to account for the time required for traffic to once again arrive at the point in the network that experienced disrupted or degraded service due to the occurrence of the fault (for example, the PML) Reversion is the time between the last reversion action and the time the traffic (if present) is completely restored on the preferred path This interval is expected to be quite small since both paths are working and care may be taken to limit the traffic disruption (for example, using make before break techniques and synchronous switchover) The time between the repair of a network impairment and the time that MPLS-based mechanisms learn that the fault has been cleared* The configured waiting time between the clearing of a fault and MPLS-based recovery action(s) Waiting time may be needed to ensure the path is stable and to avoid flapping in cases where a fault is intermittent May be zero
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Traffic restoration time
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Fault-clearing time
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Wait-to-restore time
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* May be highly dependent on lower-layer protocols Some lower-layer protocols give hardware failure indications in ms, while others have to wait for keepalives to be lost
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Dynamic Recovery Cycle
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The autumn of falling resources is followed by the winter of lost connectivity But we can always look forward to the spring, when faults are fixed and connectivity reconnected in an optimal way Every spring is different, and the optimized network will not necessarily have the same characteristics after failure as before failure New flows may have been assigned to old resources Routing reconvergence may consider new resources The old flow or trunk may or may not return to its original path If it does so, this is called reversion following a fault (Figure 1122) Alternatively, the routing system may find a better path for the old traffic Dynamic reversion can be overlaid onto recovery (Figure 1123), reversion, or both Table 1115 shows key timers in dynamic recovery
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11
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Network Enters a Semi-stable State after an Impairment Dynamic Routing Protocols Converge Initiate Setup of New Working Path between PSL and PML Switchover Operation Complete Traffic Moved to New Working Path
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----------------------------------------------------------------| T12 | T13 | T14 | T15 | Timing measures used in the model: T12 Network Route Convergence Time T13 Hold-down Time (optional) T14 Switchover Operation Time T15 Traffic Restoration Time
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Figure 1123 Dynamic recovery cycle
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I live in the great Commonwealth of Virginia, once home to George Washington, Arthur Ashe, and Thomas Jefferson It is said that it takes three Virginians to change a light bulb: one to replace the failed component, and two to discuss how good the old one was I am amazed, therefore, that revertive protection switching was not developed in my home state Revertive protection switching switches the protected traffic back to the original preferred path when the original fault is corrected Reversion normally takes place after recovery
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Table 1115 Key Timers in Dynamic Recovery Network route convergence time Holddown time The time taken for the network routing protocols to converge and for the network to reach a stable state For BGP, see [Berkowitz 2001c] A configured time for which a recovery path must be used Experience with routing protocols and things as basic as dial backup show that restored working paths may not be stable when they first seem to return to service Holddown timers prevent switching back to the restored path until there is high confidence that it is stable, reducing excess flapping Interval between the first and last switchover actions, which may include message exchanges between the PSL and PML
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