1:1 and 1+1 Restoration with Pre-established Protection Capacity in .NET framework

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1:1 and 1+1 Restoration with Pre-established Protection Capacity
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For the most critical applications, there needs to be an equivalent to 1:1 (generally not 1+1) SONET/SDH path protection with a pre-established protection resource This does not preclude having preemptible traffic on the protection path If the underlying transport is not packet-based, 1+1 protection may be appropriate
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1:1 and 1:n Restoration with Preplanned Protection Capacity
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Subtly different, and appropriate for less critical traffic, is 1:1 path protection with preplanned (rather than pre-established) protection With preplanned capacity, the protection resource can be shared among various active paths If the active paths all have different restoration priorities, the restoration is still 1:1, but with the chance of preemption If the active paths have the same restoration priority, this mechanism really becomes 1:n This method is more resource-efficient than 1:1 with pre-established capacity, but is more complex Local restoration may be a good compromise between the two methods
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Local Restoration
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If one link in a multilink, end-to-end path, fails, it should be intuitive that if that link fails but can be restored transparently to the end-to-end mechanism, restoration will be faster (see Figure 1120) Much as link-level retransmission is more efficient than end-to-end in certain specific situations, local repair is appropriate in some but not all networks One of the main concerns is that local restoration may lead to suboptimal end-to-end paths, and path-level regrooming should be scheduled in a timely but nonintrusive way Another consideration is whether all types of traffic are eligible for local restoration If only guaranteed service traffic is eligible, it is possible that the local restoration link could be set up with less bandwidth with the general link The applicability of local repair is clearest for the failure of link SRGs, but local repair of relays is certainly possible as long as the relay s routing tables are current
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STOP AND THINK How is this different, on a single hop, from multilink PPP provisioned so that either link can carry the entire load
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The Intraprovider Core: IP/MPLS
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Cinnamon and garlic can invoke on link or dill failure Dill can invoke on sensing link failures Recovery timers must be different between dill and other routers to avoid race conditions
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Figure 1120 Local repair
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Path Restoration
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This is the case in which a new potential path needs to be found using dynamic routing It is slower than protection schemes, but much more resourceefficient
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Understanding Recovery Time
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The MPLS recovery model does not cover every MPLS path In the model, certain LSRs have special functions A path switch LSR (PSL) is responsible for switching (1:1) or replicating (1+1) protected traffic between working and recovery paths A path merge LSR (PML) receives the recovery path traffic and either puts it back into the working path or delivers it to the destination when it is the terminal LSR Intermediate LSRs have neither a PSL or PML function The recovery mechanism applies to path groups, which are bundles of working paths routed identically between a PSL and a PML Only the protected path groups between the PSL and PML receive protection, since the PSL and PML are regular LSRs that also might receive best-effort traffic
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In the recovery (Figure 1121) and reversion (Figure 1122) cycles, some timers are primarily of concern to the implementer of the recovery mechanism Table 1114 presents the operationally interesting timers Other timers exist, but are primarily of interest to router developers [Sharma 2001] The most operationally interesting timers are wait-to-restore and traffic restoration times Do not overly emphasize making these extremely fast; make the underlying methods very reliable Since these timers apply only when both working and protection paths are available, stability is more important than raw speed
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Ne twork Impairment Fault Detected Start of Notification Start of Recovery Operation Recovery Operation Complete Path Traffic Restored
---------------------------------------------------------------| T1 | T2 | T3 | T4 | T5 | Timing measures used in the model: T1 Fault Detection Time T2 Hold-off Time T3 Notification Time T4 Recovery Operation Time T5 Traffic Restoration Time