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Path degraded (PD) Link failure (LF)
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No equivalent in non-QoS IP routing Typically implementation-specific, although OSPF does have a specific notification abstraction, especially for demand circuits Usually associated with an SNMP trap Typically implementation-specific, although OSPF does have a specific notification abstraction Usually associated with an SNMP trap if thresholds are defined
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Link degraded (LD)
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Fault indication signal (FIS)
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A fault along a path has BGP or IGP withdrawal route occurred passed along the Generally considered poor practice path until it reaches an LSR to announce periodically capable of initiating recovery Retransmitted periodically A fault along a working path has been repaired
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Fault recovery signal (FRS)
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Shared-Risk Groups
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Shared-risk groups (SRGs) [Dharanikota 2001] were not discussed in 8, because, while they abstractly model many of the layer 1 and 2 survivability schemes, their full potential only comes with the availability of (G)MPLS control plane functionality We often speak of single points of failure, and that is exactly what an SRG defines a set of network elements that will be affected by the same fault SRGs are not a complex concept At the link layer, a sharedrisk link group (SRLG) is the set of links that can be taken down by a single backhoe cut A shared-risk group of routers might be all of those on a common electrical power supply A given resource can belong to multiple SRG s
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Survivability in Horizontal Hierarchies
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In a horizontal hierarchy containing comparable resources under common administrative control, the principal goal is protecting a set of end-to-end connec-
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MPLS recovery mechanisms have been informed of a lower-layer quality degradation
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The Intraprovider Core: IP/MPLS
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tions between endpoints These endpoints may be completely inside the administrative domain (for instance, internal trunks) or between external border routers Each connection in this end-to-end set may have additional, areaspecific protection mechanisms Some connections will run between network elements that participate both in the horizontal (intraprovider) and vertical (interprovider) administrative domains Other connections may run between different protocol layers in the same administrative domain When end-to-end protection is built on area-specific protection, success or failure of a restoration action at the area boundary will need to be signaled Looking at this pessimistically, if there is a currently unrecoverable failure in one area, there is no need for the next area to try to find a working connection to the failure area
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Survivability in Vertical Hierarchies
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In a vertical interprovider hierarchy, there must be a fail-safe recovery based on nested timers that, as long as they do not expire, do not trigger recovery mechanisms Also, there certainly needs to be interprovider fault notification mechanisms, and extensive administrative and operational procedures that are worked out in advance of problems (see 6) When a lower layer cannot self-repair, the upper layer must be able to begin its own fault recovery For example, if there are underlying point-to-point media, a self-healing medium such as SONET/SDH, IGP, or BGP needs to detect the failure, find an alternate path or signal the creation of one, and, where applicable, transfer LSPs to it There also may need to be transfer to alternate providers, although this can cause a great deal of complexity in billing among the providers
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Survivability Mechanisms
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Competitive near-term IP and MPLS networks need to be able to demonstrate the kind of survivability that exists in SONET/SDH transmission systems The same kind of survivability is not necessarily expected in all-optical networks, because they remain in a prototype phase In fact, fault notification is the first step, more important than automatic restoration The term head end is often used to describe the network management element that is responsible for survivability actions When a head end attempts a recovery or restoration action, it ideally should create new connections that are as diversified as possible with respect to shared risk Head ends, therefore, need SRG information They also need to know if service restoration should be revertive or not For nonrevertive protection, they need to be able to designate the new resource as working, using a make-before-break capability before releasing the old working resource If the provider policy indicates the newly working resource should also be protected, the head end needs to find a new protection resource, typically through IP rerouting
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