Forwarding Equivalence Classes in .NET

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Forwarding Equivalence Classes
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Forwarding equivalence classes (FECs) are central to the (G)MPLS architecture, but I find them very useful in general routing design as well Think of a FEC as a condition under which traffic can leave your routing domain At a minimum, this will be a specific router interface Huffle, Puffle, for example, has two FECs: the dedicated line and the PPP switched backup Another way to distinguish among FECs at a common physical interface is the QoS requirement for the traffic In practice, this has to involve some sort of coloring of the traffic, such as a BGP community or settings of the Type of Service bits in the IP packet header If Huffle, Puffle had some high-priority VoIP traffic that only could go out over the dedicated outline, the firm would have three FECs: 1 VoIP high priority on the dedicated router interface 2 Normal-priority data on the dedicated router interface 3 Normal-priority data on the switched router interface Evaluating the traffic color, avoiding congestion, and so on are computationally intensive functions that do not lend themselves to core routers, whose main effort is forwarding Classifying traffic into FECs is especially attractive as an edge function, because a practical topology of distributing POPs inherently creates a distributed processing environment Many router processors can work in parallel to classify traffic Once traffic is classified, an MPLS label edge router (LER) can assign it to an appropriately colored label-switched path (LSP) Not surprisingly, the edge of the provider network is in the POP, so that is the logical place for LERs to live The greatest impact of (G)MPLS appears to be in traffic engineering Traffic engineering, however, is only one part of ensuring SLAs Even the SLA is not the total answer to user-perceived performance, which certainly can be affected by enterprise network and host behavior [Berkowitz 2000] contains a much deeper discussion of the enterprise-controlled aspects of this problem, but let us review some aspects here as a part of understanding what portions of quality are reasonably within the service provider scope We also need to review where the provider should implement these parts At the very least, some parts are
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appropriate to the edge while others are appropriate to the core At the edge, we are often concerned with traffic policing, connection admission control, and so on In the core, we are especially concerned with per-hop behavior (PHB)
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What Interferes with Quality
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The user-oriented trade press, and much of enterprise router training, focus on the mechanisms of quality enforcement, such as queuing This emphasis often leads to inadequate requirement specification or to specifying requirements that are unnecessarily expensive Paul Ferguson [Ferguson 1999] has correctly observed that no QoS mechanism can repeal the speed of light The speed of light in particular media, as well as the clocking rates of transmission interfaces, are basic physical phenomena They lead, respectively, to propagation delay and serialization delay In the presence of these physical delays, multiple devices contending for a common resource (for instance, the physical link between enterprise and provider) can produce congestion Congestion causes queuing delay When congestion causes traffic to be dropped, or if traffic is lost due to transmission errors, congestion can become even worse if the host response is to retransmit A medium s capacity is expressed in bandwidth (the number of bits per second it can carry) Media are not perfect Bits do not move instantaneously across media, and media may have transmission errors that cause some bits to be lost Often, the serialization delay in clocking bits onto the medium is the most significant, and most overlooked, part of total latency Once the bits are on the wire, they must move along the wire to the destination This propagation delay is the product of the speed of light in the specific medium and the length of the medium For most terrestrial facilities, the propagation delay can be approximated as 6 ms per kilometer of airline distance between two reasonably distant points Remember that a fundamental principle of IP architecture is to place intelligence in the end host TCP flow and error control, for example, do not directly interact at all with the router network Relays (routers or switches) can buffer either on input (before the routing decision is made) or output This discussion focuses on output buffering that takes place when the output WAN interface is busy (that is, the associated medium is congested) The time that a packet waits to be sent out a medium that is busy with other traffic is queuing delay Queuing delay adds to transmission and propagation delay Buffering, or queuing, mechanisms have two parts First, a queuing algorithm defines when traffic is placed in a queue rather than being sent to the original resource (for example, the output interface) A scheduling algorithm defines when to take traffic from a queue, and which queue to select if there is more than one The closer they are to the end user, the more benefits buffers can provide Interactive applications are bursty There is human think time between queries and responses Buffering can smooth these bursts, so by the time the combined
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