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Figure 108 Full iBGP mesh
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Subscriber to Provider, and Subscriber to Subscriber Edge: IP
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Route Reflectors [RFC 2796]
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Route reflectors are one of two basic approaches for reducing the number of iBGP peers internal to an AS Traditionally, iBGP speakers peered in a full mesh, which does not scale well beyond 20 to 30 peers per router With route reflection, a given router either is a route reflector client or a route reflector Clients, typically edge routers, peer only to the route reflector(s) inside their cluster A cluster can contain more than one reflector for reliability; the reflectors must connect to each other
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Implementing Basic Route Reflectors
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A cooperating set of route reflectors and clients is called a cluster The clients should establish iBGP peering only with the reflector(s) in their clusters, not with all iBGP speakers in the AS For the topology in Figure 109, you must be sure that the clients have iBGP connectivity to the reflector but not to each other Both the clients and the reflector are free to have eBGP connectivity with any outside AS BGP generally uses the path vector algorithm to reject updates that contain loops It does so by dropping any eBGP update that arrives containing its own autonomous system number as part of the AS path in the update Additional mechanisms are needed to prevent loops in route reflection For the basic case of a single reflector, routes generated by the reflector contain an originator ID attribute, which contains the router ID of the reflector The reflector will discard any routes it receives that contain its own originator ID
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Figure 109 Basic route reflection
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A CAUTION FOR ROUTE REFLECTION Route reflectors summarize the routing information they gather, and only give their clients what the reflector believes to be the best path It is possible, therefore, that the route given to a client is not the optimal route that the client router would find if it were not in a cluster but was fully iBGP meshed In practice, this may not be a significant problem, as long as there are no routing loops See [RFC 2796] for a discussion of alternative ways to make reflected route selection consistent with full mesh selection
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Multiple Reflectors and Cluster IDs
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To avoid a single point of failure, a cluster can have more than one reflector (Figure 1010) Loop prevention then becomes more complex, because a reflector needs to drop an update received from outside the cluster if the update originated with another reflector in the same cluster Cluster lists are the additional loop prevention mechanism needed in a cluster that has more than one reflector All reflectors in the cluster need to have the same cluster ID
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Confederations
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Communities define sets of routes Confederations (Figure 1011) define sets of ASs, but with the additional connotation that all but one AS are hidden
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Figure 1010 Multiple reflectors in a cluster
Subscriber to Provider, and Subscriber to Subscriber Edge: IP
Public AS with Public AS number
POP AS65000
POP AS65111
POP AS65222
Figure 1011 Confederations used for POPs
from the Internet In 9, we introduced well-known communities used for scoping advertisements Confederations use an additional well-known community, LOCAL-AS, which has the well-known meaning that the route is not to be advertised outside the local AS In other words, it has a more restrictive scope than the NO-EXPORT community, which specifies that the route is not to be exported from the confederation
POP Design for Dial-up and Other Switched Access
As we discussed in 7, the user connection terminates either directly on an access server you operate or on an access server operated by an access wholesaler
Scalability Issues: Protecting the Routing System
Registry Level
Routing registries have long been controversial as operational components of the global routing system There are two principal concerns First, the registry
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data may be inaccurate or incomplete because network operators do not update it Routing registries are distributed databases of RPSL policies Typically, participation in them has been voluntary, although RIPE has now made minimal registration a prerequisite for obtaining an AS number Second, the registry data may be incomplete because significant parts of major providers policies their bilateral peering agreements are considered sensitive proprietary information and will not be recorded in public registries This is not an inherent criticism of registry technologies In practice, some major providers have internal registries that mirror the public data but also include proprietary information Of course, these internal registries are only available inside the provider Reverse path verification avoids many of the problems associated with the maintenance of explicit filter lists