Basic POP Design with Dedicated Customer Access in Visual Studio .NET

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While conventional wisdom often looks at throughput as the limiting factor for a router, in edge applications the limiting factor is often the number of interfaces the router supports The first level of interface limitation is physi-
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cal: the simple number of ports that can fit on the router chassis It might seem that being able to groom traffic onto physical interfaces would alleviate the problem, but current router operating systems still cannot deal with huge numbers of software-defined interfaces Using NBMA, point-to-multipoint topologies can help, but the reality is that, to have thousands of interfaces available at a POP, you will need to have multiple router platforms and connectivity among them Once IP packets arrive at the edge routers, they can be routed into a much smaller number of interfaces that connect across the provider core, to other providers, or to hosts (including caches) at the POP Given that there will be multiple routers in the POP, and potentially traffic that stays local to it, there will usually need to be routing whose scope is limited to the POP Such routing can use an IGP or BGP While small POPs can use full mesh iBGP, there are an assortment of reasons to use iBGP scalability techniques such as route reflectors and confederations Let s examine the general topic of iBGP scalability and then discuss IGP routing that is appropriate for POPs
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Intra-POP Routing
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It is common practice to run an IGP usually ISIS or OSPF in the POP, as well as running iBGP The purposes of the IGP include fast convergence within the POP, route summarization, and making fine-grained decisions on metrics POPs and the ISP core generally communicate with iBGP, although each POP and the core may also be independent IGP domains Some designs either use two-level IGP hierarchy completely inside POPs or treat the core as an IGP backbone See 11 for considerations of core routing
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In networks of reasonable size for POPs, ISIS and OSPF can reconverge in times on the order of low numbers of seconds By adjusting timers and other parameters, they can often be tuned to converge in 3 s or so, which is often adequate for enterprises running timing-sensitive protocols such as IBM System Network Architecture (SNA) While ISIS historically is more popular in the core (see 11), OSPF has offered some features that are attractive for POP applications Recent updates to ISIS may make the difference less important, and we may see a trend toward making OSPF the primary enterprise IGP and ISIS the primary ISP IGP OSPF has some functionality that can be quite useful in complex enterprise routing, whereas ISIS has demonstrated excellent scalability in the ISP environment Especially when multihoming involves complex intra-enterprise routing as part of the solution, definitely encourage customers to use appropriate
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10
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OSPF features such as type 1 and type 2 externals See 9 for non-BGP multihoming strategies RIP has limited utility for small customer networks With respect to the POP, it is really a signaling protocol to help the customer hosts find their default gateway Generally, I discourage the use of RIP in any way between customer and provider, but you may be forced to use it in some accounts See Routing Security Branches from Inappropriate Use of RIP later in this chapter for some security holes that RIP can produce I cannot think of any justification to use RIP as the intra-POP routing protocol
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iBGP in the POP
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iBGP does not scale well, because both TCP and per-peer policy are processor intensive Depending, of course, on the processing power of the routers, conventional routers tend to dislike more than 20 to 30 busy BGP sessions and to become extremely upset at 100 (see Figure 108) There are two main ways to improve iBGP scalability: route reflectors and confederations The peer group technique, discussed in Peer Groups later in this chapter, is sometimes useful in scaling iBGP A related scalability feature is whether or not to enable synchronization 11 discusses the use of route reflectors and confederation in the provider core that interconnects POPs The emphasis here is on POP applications
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