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BGP has a relatively simple protocol state machine compared to OSPF or EIGRP There is no explicit OPEN confirmation OPEN is confirmed implicitly with a KEEPALIVE Carried in a TCP data field are four BGP message types, but a fifth type, ROUTE REFRESH, is being added Since use of the latter is negotiable, see the section Negotiable Capabilities The maximum size of any message is 4,096 bytes; the smallest is 19 (the header only) The common header is shown in Figure 911 A new feature, capabilities advertising, allows the peers to exchange information on optional BGP capabilities at the time the connection is established
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9
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Marker (All ones or authentication) Length Type
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Figure 911 Overview of BGP message types
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BGP Session Management: OPEN, KEEPALIVE, and NOTIFICATION
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OPEN messages establish initial BGP connections The two BGP speakers need to agree on the hold time value and the values of any optional parameters or authentication if the connection is to be established Hold time is the BGP timeout The BGP speaker will terminate the connection if it fails to receive either an UPDATE or KEEPALIVE before the timer expires Setting hold time to zero, however, tells the BGP speakers not to time out BGP does not use TCP to check whether peers are reachable, but uses its own KEEPALIVE mechanism A BGP speaker sends a KEEPALIVE to each peer, typically at an interval of one-third of the configurable hold time and no more frequently than once per second Setting a hold time of zero at connection establishment time can turn off KEEPALIVE These messages consist only of a 19-byte header BGP signals fatal errors with the NOTIFICATION message After a BGP speaker sends this message, it immediately closes its BGP connection
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WHEN WILL WE DISCUSS PACKET AND RELATED FORMATS In general, we won t, because this is a book about network design, not protocol design or operational troubleshooting We will talk about the kind of information that is in protocol information, and occasionally about encoding when encoding is relevant to understanding the hierarchy of options for a particular parameter I will also mention sizes, because they may have an effect on bandwidth In general, however, if you need the exact layouts, it is best to go to the appropriate RFCs so you have complete information
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Authentication
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BGP has a rather limited ability to authenticate messages, and better alternatives are being studied as means of improving the security of the routing system against denial-of-service attack The actual authentication field in a BGP packet is based on a Message Authentication Digest 5 (MD5) digest produced from the TCP pseudoheader (including selected IP header fields), the TCP header with options excluded, the TCP segment (containing the BGP message), and a key known to the two parties to the session While MD5 authentication has been deployed operationally, it is not considered a particularly strong cryptographic hash algorithm It is entirely possible that a stronger algorithm may be adopted, or that IPSec might be used for BGP security
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Capabilities Advertisement
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As the complexity of the Internet has increased, so have the capabilities of BGP Older routers do not necessarily support all these capabilities The installed base of older routers, however, cannot be made obsolete, so any new capability must be implemented with backward compatibility To make these capabilities available with minimum impact, a relatively small change has been made to the BGP OPEN message, adding a parameter called capabilities The parameter, when present, lists the capabilities supported by the sender of the OPEN If the receiver of the OPEN does not support capabilities advertisement, it will not recognize the optional capabilities parameters and will refuse the connection with a NOTIFICATION message bearing the unsupported parameter subcode It is now the choice of the original sender whether to send a new OPEN with no capability parameter If the receiver does support capabilities advertisement, but not the specific capabilities being proposed, it will again refuse the connection with a NOTIFICATION message with the unsupported optional parameter code Again, it is the decision of the originator whether to retry the session setup without that parameter
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