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Reach/Range
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Optical transmission systems have several ranges of reach, as shown in Table 84
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8 Table 84 Ranges of Reach of Optical Transmission Systems TYPE Very short Metro Long haul Ultra-long REACH Hundreds of meters Tens of kilometers Hundreds to low thousands of kilometers 4,000 km or more APPLICATION Host to access device; interoffice connectivity Local loops Long distance along accessible paths Long distance along inaccessible paths (for example, underseas, the Himalayas, trans-Siberia)
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Facilities-Based Services
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Table 85 shows leasing alternatives for facilities-based services
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Managed Wavelength Services
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The provider of managed wavelength services controls the fiber itself but leases full lambdas to its customers The customer can decide how to multiplex the lambda, or not to multiplex it at all (for instance, 10-Gbit Ethernet) The customer s multiplexing can use SONET/SDH, resilient packet rings (RPRs), or other methods they are literally transparent to the fiber operator Managed
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Table 85 Leasing Alternatives MANAGED FIBER High Lowest Highest Low Highest Optional Moderate MANAGED WAVELENGTH Moderate Low High Low to moderate Substantial Optional Fast
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PDH/SDH Capital cost Cost per bit Capacity Topological flexibility Scalability Protection Service activation Low (assuming existing plant) High 50 Mbps High Not implicit* Not implicit Slow
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* If the service is provisioned with a facility that has additional capacity, such as having several DS1s multiplexed from a single DS3 physical facility, adding capacity may simply be a matter of reprovisioning the multiplexers
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Transporting the Bits: The Sub-IP and Physical Intraprovider Core
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wavelength service will not have the massive economy of scale per unit of bandwidth that a managed fiber service can offer, but most applications do not need such massive bandwidth Managed wavelength service does offer greater flexibility in pure topology, offering the potential of grooming multiple wavelengths onto a central fiber or protected fiber The capital cost is lower than for managed fiber In metro environments, the increments available are OC-3 to OC-192, and OC-48 to OC-192 (or more) in long-haul systems The bandwidth is adequate to offer business opportunities for reselling lower-speed increments Different grades of protection are available, from the <50-ms restoration characteristic of dual-ring SONET, to intermediate backup, to unprotected but not preemptable, to preemptable
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Managed Fiber Services
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A managed fiber service offers an entire medium to its customer, and the customer can decide how many wavelengths to put on it There may be capabilities for automatic protection switching to other fibers Optical transmission facilities can run directly between customer facilities, if the physical topology of the sites permits It is more common that they will take multiple optical hops through optical provider facilities
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Connection-Oriented Services
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Connection-oriented services keep control of the wavelength or fiber with the service provider They include managed bandwidth services, static provisioned bandwidth (SPB) service, and bandwidth-on-demand (BOD) service
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The traditional facilities-based service provider supplies bandwidth to its customer, from fractional T1 to OC-192 Carrier charges are independent of usage One of the criticisms of such services is that there may be substantial delay in provisioning additional capacity Another criticism is that the managed bandwidth technologies may not have the automatic failover capabilities of newer technologies such as SONET One of the interesting aspects of providing efficient managed bandwidth is the capacity of the local loop In North America, the point at which fractional T3, or even full T3, service becomes more cost-effective than multiple T1s typically is at the bandwidth equivalent of six or seven T1s The provider, when provisioning the initial local loop for a customer needing only one or two T1s, needs to ask whether the customer s requirements are likely to grow to the point where a T3 local loop would have reasonable utilization and a lower
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capital cost than multiple T1s Indeed, many facilities-based providers are running OC-3 or faster SONET to suburban office parks, installing a providerowned ATM switch or SONET add-drop multiplexer there This puts the provider in a position to be quite responsive to subscriber requests for more capacity Use of dual-ring SONET to connect to such locations also offers a great deal of confidence in availability, including protection against the dreaded backhoe fade Direct optical links can be quite reasonable in metropolitan areas There are many reasons, however, why enterprises and IP service providers do not install the fiber themselves Perhaps even more complex than the actual laying of the fiber is arranging rights-of-way, coordinating with local authorities when roads need to be disrupted, managing the chaos of digging, and so on
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