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Like the PDH and CEPT hierarchies, SONET has its own hierarchy of speeds These speeds, shown in Table 82, include SONET overhead While SONET overhead is not as heavy as the ATM cell tax and the ATM adaptation layer (AAL) tax, the full SONET rate is not available to user traffic The 5184 Mbps STS-1 rate is the basic building block of SONET You can draw the analogy that STS-1 is to SONET as DS0 is to the PDH; it is the basic quantum of speed It is slightly faster than a DS3, so it can encapsulate DS3 or slower links into what are called virtual tributaries, as shown in Table 83
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Table 82 SONET Hierarchy OC LEVEL OC-1 OC-3 OC-9 OC-12 OC-18 OC-24 OC-36 OC-48 OC-96 OC-192 OC-768 SPEED 5184 Mbps 15552 Mbps 46656 Mbps 62208 Mbps 93312 Mbps 1244 Gbps 1866 Gbps 2488 Gbps 4976 Gbps 9953 Gbps (usually called 10 Gbps) 39813 Gbps (usually called 40 Gbps)
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8 Table 83 Multiplexing into an STS-1 Bitstream SERVICE VT 15 VT 2 VT 3 VT 6 VT 6-Nc Asynchronous DS3 SPEED 1728 Mbps 2304 Mbps 3456 Mbps 6912 Mbps N 6912 Mbps 44736 Mbps CARRIES DS1 CEPT1/E1 DS1C DS2 N DS2 DS3
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PPP over SONET has better bandwidth efficiency than ATM with any AAL type If the optical link carries IP between two routers, the bandwidth between those routers is guaranteed what else can use it ATM s QoS capabilities are of no use in this situation If ATM is delivering end-to-end virtual circuits, it does have a role But for intercarrier router links, it is hard to justify ATM in preference to POS SONET has become a transitional technology, just as ATM/SONET was an evolutionary step beyond TDM Due to the large and effective SONET installed base, newer technologies must support SONET A difference between SONET and some of the newer technologies is that an intermediate level of frame- or packet-to-bit conversion is necessary before information can go onto the SONET facility The one exception is that there are a substantial number of products that put PPP frames onto SONET PPP, however, is less useful than Ethernet framing
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The networking corollary to Murphy s Law is, Murphy was an optimist There will be failures in any real-world network One of the fundamental properties of carrier-grade networks is that they plan for automated recovery from failure This planning involves both providing spare resources and mechanisms for detecting failures and invoking appropriate spare capacity Survivability describes the ability of a particular network to maintain service possibly degraded service after faults occur Survivability has to be engineered into the network using such techniques as protection and restoration
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RESTORATION PRIORITY The term restoration priority includes both a specific network design principle and an important administrative mechanism for carriers in the United States and certain other countries In network design, it specifies the order in which failed resources can take over a backup resource The US National Communications System has a set of rules for how carriers are to restore facilities in national emergency facilities For example, nuclear command and control have higher priorities than local emergency response services, which have higher priorities than banking facilities
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Several concepts go into survivable, self-healing networks In an ideal world, there are always spare resources Protection techniques automatically substitute a backup resource for a failed resource, and assume a resource will be predesignated and available Restoration techniques may have to locate spare resources before the failed service can be put back in service Another way of regarding healing is that protection depends on the preallocation of facilities, while restoration involves some level of routing intelligence to find resources
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