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High-density DSL ISDN DSL Rate-adaptive DSL Symmetric DSL Very-high-speed DSL
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VDSL has much less range than ADSL, HDSL, and IDSL VDSL assumes that copper pair will connect the actual subscriber to a nearby optical network unit (ONU), which connects to the CO via fiber Total copper lengths should not exceed 300 m The ONU might be in an outside pedestal (fiber to the curb), inside a multiple-subscriber structure such as an office or apartment building (fiber to the building), or next to the home (fiber to the home) Lower-speed DSL services use a pure hub-and-spoke topology, with individual copper pairs to the serving CO As speeds increase, the medium s distance capability decreases, so remote terminals repeaters and concentrators will terminate end connections and concentrate them, creating a branched star Local loops are dedicated to individual users, and, even when concentrated at remote terminals, guarantee bandwidth to the central office At the CO, however, there may be a bottleneck If there is no router colocated at the CO, xDSL user bit streams need to be put onto a link that will carry them to the service provider The capacity of that link may not support simultaneous data flow from several users, or even full-rate bursts from individual users I have seen ADSL rates in the hundreds of kilobits offered to multiple users, but with only a 384-Kbps virtual circuit from the CO to the first provider POP Most current systems require a CO port for each user, which is more expensive than connecting a cable to a head end Work is going into methods of oversubscribing the DSLAM ports, much as conventional analog switches cannot support calls from all subscribers Going to an oversubscription model would relinquish the benefit of guaranteed bandwidth and connectivity, but that might be acceptable as a consumer service Another practical business issue for xDSL is the role of the traditional telephone company Traditionally, telephone companies, especially when an out-
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side plant is concerned, have been slow to implement new technologies Can you say ISDN I knew you could! Telcos became comfortable provisioning ISDN at the approximate time ISDN became obsolete ISPs, however, do not have extensive experience with local distribution An alternative may be arising with DSL wholesalers, such as Covad In a manner similar to modem pool wholesalers, these companies handle the DSL access for multiple ISPs and have the volume both to maintain an experience base and to gain economies of scale when installing equipment in COs Of course, most of them are in 11 bankruptcy, if not 7 ILECs can be very strong competitors when roused See Figure 713 for an example of how a wholesaler connects the ISPs Many xDSL providers differentiate between consumer and business use Consumer services are cheaper, but may share bandwidth from the CO to the ISP Consumer services also may implement the ATU-R as a card internal to a PC, lowering costs further SOHO business applications tend to have higher quality of service and to have an external box that may combine the ADSL transceiver unit remote (ATU-R), an Ethernet hub, and a router Using SDSL in such an implementation is the primary way I connect externally from my home office, although I do have a more complex internal structure with additional routers and firewalls My needs are more complex than those of most SOHO users
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Figure 713 Telco and wholesaler DSL connectivity
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TRUST ME, I M FROM THE TELCO [BERKOWITZ 2000A] When I first tried to order DSL service, I called the ILEC and went through a strange dialogue, which is quoted here to the best of my recollection Howard: I d like to order ADSL service Telco Representative #1: Whaaat H (referring quickly to the marketing materials): Oh Infospeed service We progressed, until the question was asked: TR1: What kind of computer will you be using H: Why should you care You re a bit pipe to me TR1: I need to know what kind of computer, sir H: I won t be plugging in a single computer, but a hub or router I don t want to install an additional Ethernet port so I can still get to the printer TR1: Sir, if our installer sees a router, he will immediately leave H: What if I put a software router in a PC How can the installer see it TR1: Ummm sir, I need to escalate this call I reached Telco Representative #2, who nattered on about needing to know the PC type Eventually, I told her to stop referring to the PC type, because my main machine is a Mac TR2: I m sorry, sir We don t support Macs H: (deep sigh) Why TR2 (and this really, really is a direct quote): Because Macs don t have MAC addresses
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HDSL is an extremely attractive alternative to conventional T1 and E1 A major advantage is that it does not need repeaters on most lines if it can use native HDSL 2 binary 1 quaternary (2B1Q) modulation and rate adaptation Using these native modes does require that the CO equipment be able to accept this signal, which it may not because it only speaks a line encoding such as AMI T1 and E1 need to have repeaters installed every 4,000 to 6,000 ft Current HDSL uses two pairs, as do T1 and E1 HDSL splits the T1 bandwidth into bidirectional 784 Kbps on each pair SDSL is a variant of HDSL that provides lower speed over a single wire pair SDSL has shorter range than HDSL, but is cheaper It tends to be the basis for business-grade DSL services, in part because it has the same speed in both directions, a requirement for two-way video or audio ADSL is asymmetrical in the sense that it has higher bandwidth in one direction than another This is quite appropriate for such applications as video on
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