COMPUTER-BASED TESTING AND THE INTERNET
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received such scant attention, in comparison with other aspects of testing The ITC Guidelines for Test Use (2001) emphasise the importance of providing feedback and of reporting that is unbiased and that does not over-interpret the results of a test The more recent Guidelines on Computer Based Testing and Internet-Delivered Testing (ITC, 2005) also place an emphasis on the need for test developers, test distributors, and test users to pay attention to the provision of feedback In the traditional I/O testing scenario, results (especially of personality and other self-report inventories) were often fed back to test takers in a face-to-face session that provided opportunities for the feedback provider to address issues, and the recipient of the information to ask questions While it is still recommended that complex score reporting (such as the feedback of the results of a multi-scale personality inventory) should be supported as much as possible or practical with personal contact, the growth of Internet-based testing has tended to make feedback and reporting as remote an event as the test administration Luecht has relatively little to say about reporting, as he is dealing with the relatively simple case of an examination, which produces a single outcome, possibly with some diagnostic breakdown of subscores The more complex issue of reporting back to non-experts (test takers, line managers, children, parents, etc) on constructs such as personality, intelligence, or motivation needs further attention While as psychometricians we rightly tend to pay attention to the validity of a test, the actual impact the test has on people is mediated through reporting Reviews of tests tend to focus on the test itself and ignore the computer-based test interpretation reports that test users may be provided with This issue has been addressed recently by the BPS in their test review procedure The EFPA Test Review Criteria (Bartram, 2002) also contain criteria for the description and evaluation of computer-generated reports The latest edition of BPS Reviews (these reviews are published on the BPS Psychological Testing Centre website wwwpsychtestingorguk) is using this model and will be providing reviews of computer generated reports as well as of the tests from which they are generated In short, there are three distinct ways we can look at validity 1 What is the validity of the test score What does it correlate with What is the convergent and divergent construct validity What is its criterion related validity for various criteria And so on 2 Where the test scores are used to generate a report, what is the validity of the link between the statements made in the report and the test scores If the report provides an interpretation for a lay user, then the consequences of the test will no longer be determined by the scores on the test, but by the words in the report 3 Finally, while a report may faithfully represent the information contained in the test scores, those who have access to the report may not have suf cient training or knowledge to understand that information and may misapply or misuse it
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It is because test results tend to impact indirectly on outcomes and because their effects are mediated through reporting processes, assessment policies and their combination with other information that the simple psychometric concepts of validity have limited value in applied settings The latest Standards on Psychological and Educational Testing (AERA/APA/NCME, 1999) acknowledge this in Standards 122 and 123 with the concept of consequential validity This is an issue to which far more attention needs to be paid in the future in understanding some of the difference between the science and the practice of testing
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