INTERNET TESTING: THE EXAMINEE PERSPECTIVE in Visual Studio .NET

Print QR-Code in Visual Studio .NET INTERNET TESTING: THE EXAMINEE PERSPECTIVE
INTERNET TESTING: THE EXAMINEE PERSPECTIVE
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In terms of information factors, Stone and Stone suggested that the purpose of information collection was likely to affect concerns about privacy Information that was seen as more relevant was expected to raise fewer concerns about privacy Thus, the greater the t between the type of information being collected and the stated purpose of the data collection, the less the concern over privacy They also suggested that certain types of information (eg sexual orientation information) were perceived to be more invasive of privacy than others (eg previous job history) In the present context, some tests (eg biodata) may be perceived as presenting greater privacy concerns than other tests (eg cognitive ability) Authorization of information was viewed as another important determinant of privacy perceptions In cases where individuals have control over the release of information, they have fewer privacy concerns In support of this component of the model, Eddy et al (1999) employed a eld study of a human resource management information system They found empirical evidence that having control over the release of information reduced privacy concerns The identity of the recipient of the information was also deemed an important determinant of privacy perceptions Stone, Gueutal, Gardner, and McClure (1983) found the respondents had more positive attitudes towards their ability to control information held by employers than towards other institutions, such as insurance companies and law enforcement agencies Eddy et al (1999) reported that restriction of information to internal use (ie within the organization) reduced privacy concerns Another determinant of privacy in the model of Stone and Stone (1990) was the collection procedure Because this model was developed prior to the widespread popularity of the Internet, this method was not considered Nevertheless, a number of considerations offered by Stone and Stone logically apply to Internet-based testing An individual s understanding of what is being measured and the degree to which the process appears to intrude upon the individual were hypothesized to serve as mediating factors linking collection procedure to privacy concerns Hence, as suggested in the model provided in Figure 61, administration processes are likely to moderate the relationship between privacy concerns and test-taker reactions A recent study by Harris et al (2003) provides the only empirical evidence in regard to Internet-based testing and privacy concerns that we located Harris et al obtained privacy ratings from a US and Belgian sample of college students Sample predictor items included Companies sell employmentrelated information (eg answers to a test) that they collect from unsuspecting applicants over the Internet and There are strict laws protecting the con dentiality of employment-related information submitted over the Internet The criterion item was I would avoid submitting employment-related information over the Internet In partial support of their hypothesis, Harris et al found that some of the predictor items signi cantly correlated with the criterion for the US sample Only one of the seven predictor items was signi cantly correlated with the criterion for the Belgian sample Even for the US sample, the correlations were fairly modest (020s and 030s) As noted earlier in this
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COMPUTER-BASED TESTING AND THE INTERNET
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chapter, concern with technical problems correlated more highly (r 0:50) with reluctance to submit information over the Internet Moreover, on average, respondents were rather neutral about privacy, indicating modest concern with regard to misuse of employment-related information they submitted over the Internet As expected, Harris et al found some signi cant relationships between self-rated knowledge of the Internet and concern for privacy The direction of these relationships, however, differed for the US and Belgian sample In the US sample, respondents with more knowledge of the Internet were less likely to indicate that companies needed to get approval from applicants to release information For the Belgian sample, the reverse was true; the more knowledge of the Internet the respondent had, the more likely he or she felt that a company needed approval For the US sample only, more knowledge of the Internet was associated with less concern about using the Internet to submit employment-related information There are a number of issues here for future investigators to consider First, we need much more research on the effects of privacy concern on test-taker responses In other words, does concern over privacy affect how examinees answer test questions I suspect that when there are privacy concerns some kinds of test may be more susceptible to distortion than other tests For example, it seems likely that inquiries regarding sensitive topics, such as political beliefs, may be answered differently if a candidate has concerns as to whether other organizations may view the results In turn, this may affect test validity Second, future research should investigate the role of culture on privacy notions Based on the work of Harris et al (2003), the next step would be to measure culture to determine whether this explains differences in privacy perceptions (Milberg, Smith, & Burke, 2000) Third, more research is needed regarding the antecedents (eg organizational reputation) and correlates (eg belief in the just world hypothesis) of privacy concerns Finally, there is an opportunity here for researchers to re ne and update the Stone Stone (1990) model to t the more speci c context of Internet-based testing in the workplace
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