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Drawer QR Code ISO/IEC18004 in VS .NET ISSUES THAT SIMULATIONS FACE AS ASSESSMENT TOOLS
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of the number of conferences, workshops and seminars I have attended where one or more of the presenters is a representative of an engineering or a video company who, for other reasons, have developed a clever bit of software or a valuable database and then thought what a good idea it would be to use it for running simulations Then, having designed the simulation, as an afterthought they begin to consider how they might superimpose some sort of assessment regime on the simulation Usually, in these cases, even less thought is given to whether the assessment has good technical characteristics or to whether the same assessment goal could not be achieved at half the cost in a third of the time using some other method With this in mind, it is interesting to note the trials and tribulations Melnick and Clauser report in the development of the MIDS simulation Almost all of the common lessons for simulator developers are there:  Don t start with scenarios  Do start with what it is possible to assess  Think about the volume and quality of evidence that the simulation is capable of providing at the outset  Decide in advance how you will score or measure performance  Decide how stripped down you can make the simulation without losing quality, credibility or key performance information  Don t assess everything you can the correlations between different measures are often so high that only one measure is needed  Optimise the value you get from the simulation: - Don t fall back on tired old multiple choice assessment when there is the possibility of obtaining high quality performance evidence - Use the simulation for as many purposes as possible, eg training, task rehearsal, recruitment, competence assessment, etc
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Standardisation and Equivalence of Forms As noted previously, standardisation and equivalence can be a problem for simulation if the scenario underpinning it can unfold in a myriad different ways depending on the candidate There are a number of ways of controlling this You can minimise the degree of interaction between the candidate and the simulator Responses can be recorded but have no effect on how the scenario unfolds The simulation can be split into short, manageable segments with the status of the scenario being reset at the end of each segment The cost of each of these solutions is to reduce the reality of the simulation and to restrict the sorts of behaviour that can be observed, for example, how well individuals recover from making sub-optimal decisions or errors However, it is unnecessary to strive for very high levels of reality Carefully constructed scaled simulations can cover all the bases while allowing the assessor to maintain a high level of control over assessment conditions
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Scoring and Interpretation Computerisation can bring the bene ts of instant scoring, fast comparison against norms or other interpretive guides (cf Hornke & Kersting) and, if desired, instant feedback However, again, the experience of Melnick and Clauser in developing the MIDS simulator shows what a complicated task scoring and interpretation can be There are two major aspects of interpretation to think about 1 What type(s) of score should you use 2 How sophisticated a scoring process should you adopt Again, just because you can do it does not mean you should Simulations can involve any or all of the following types of measure:          Number correct Number of errors Number of omissions Number attempted Appropriateness of decisions/options chosen Goal achievement Success in achieving goals relative to other candidates Speed of response Etc
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However, the nature of the simulation task may preclude some of these or make others undesirable In particular, you should choose a type of score that does not alter the behavioural or performance aspects of the simulation in undesirable ways For example, consider the most commonly used of all test scores, the number correct For many types of simulation this will be an entirely appropriate measure If you want to be sure that doctors make correct medical diagnoses, it makes sense to present symptoms in a variety of ways and check that the correct conclusions are reached However, the business game simulation described by Hornke and Kersting does not t this model There is a speci ed goal and evidence of progress towards that goal can be measured, but there are many ways the goal can be achieved There is no individual action along the way that, in any simple sense, can be said to be correct or incorrect, even though you may be able to track a sequence of goal-oriented behaviours that, taken together, lead to a positive outcome The business game highlights a further problem with the scoring of simulations If the scoring focuses on outputs or the achievement of goals, there may be too little scoreable information at the end of the task to establish the reliability of the measure Furthermore, in goal-oriented scenarios, candidates may be doing all the right things but then make one big mistake that negates all the good work that has gone before This may be very like real life, a crucial observation if Proudly Presents, Thx with the assessment of competence YYePG you are dealing For Support!
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