62: SELECTION STATEMENTS in Java

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62: SELECTION STATEMENTS
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The rule for matching an else clause is that an else clause always refers to the nearest if that is not already associated with another else clause Block notation and proper indentation can be used to make the meaning obvious Cascading if-else statements are a sequence of nested if-else statements where the if of the next if-else statement is joined to the else clause of the previous one The decision to execute a block is then based on all the conditions evaluated so far
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if (temperature >= upperLimit) { soundAlarm(); turnHeaterOff(); } else if (temperature < lowerLimit) { soundAlarm(); turnHeaterOn(); } else if (temperature == (upperLimit-lowerLimit)/2) { doingFine(); } else noCauseToWorry(); // (1)
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// (2)
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// (3) // (4)
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The block corresponding to the first if condition that evaluates to true is executed, and the remaining ifs are skipped In the example given above, the block at (3) will execute only if the conditions at (1) and (2) are false and the condition at (3) is true If none of the conditions are true, the block associated with the last else clause is executed If there is no last else clause, no actions are performed
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The switch Statement
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Conceptually, the switch statement can be used to choose one among many alternative actions, based on the value of an expression Its general form is as follows:
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switch (<switch case case case
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expression>) label1: <statement1> label2: <statement2> labeln: <statementn>
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default: <statement> } // end switch
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The syntax of the switch statement comprises a switch expression followed by the switch body, which is a block of statements The type of the switch expression is either an enumerated type or one of the following types: char, byte, short, int, or the corresponding wrapper type for these primitive types The statements in the switch body can be labeled, this defines entry points in the switch body where control can be transferred depending on the value of the switch expression The execution of the switch statement is as follows: The switch expression is evaluated first If the value is a wrapper type, an unboxing conversion is performed The value of the switch expression is compared with the case labels Control is transferred to the <statementi> associated with the case label that is equal to the
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CHAPTER 6: CONTROL FLOW
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value of the switch expression After execution of the associated statement, control falls through to the next statement unless appropriate action is taken If no case label is equal to the value of the switch expression, the statement associated with the default label is executed Figure 62 illustrates the flow of control through a switch statement where the default label is declared last All labels (including the default label) are optional, and can be defined in any order in the switch body There can be at the most one default label in a switch statement If no valid case labels are found and the default label is left out, the whole switch statement is skipped The case labels are constant expressions whose values must be unique, meaning no duplicate values are allowed As a matter of fact, a case label must be a compiletime constant expression whose value must be assignable to the type of the switch expression (see Section 52, p 163) In particular, all the case label values must be in the range of the type of the switch expression Note that the type of the case label cannot be boolean, long, or floating-point
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Activity Diagram for a switch Statement
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Evaluate switch expression Find matching label
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[case label1] Execute associated statement1
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[case labeln] Execute associated statementn
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[default label] Execute associated statement
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Example 61
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Fall Through in a switch Statement
public class Advice { public final static int LITTLE_ADVICE = 0; public final static int MORE_ADVICE = 1; public final static int LOTS_OF_ADVICE = 2; public static void main(String[] args) { dispenseAdvice(LOTS_OF_ADVICE); }
62: SELECTION STATEMENTS public static void dispenseAdvice(int howMuchAdvice) { switch(howMuchAdvice) { // (1) case LOTS_OF_ADVICE: Systemoutprintln("See no evil"); // (2) case MORE_ADVICE: Systemoutprintln("Speak no evil"); // (3) case LITTLE_ADVICE: Systemoutprintln("Hear no evil"); // (4) break; // (5) default: Systemoutprintln("No advice"); // (6) } } }
Output from the program: