15: COLLECTIONS AND MAPS in Java

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CHAPTER 15: COLLECTIONS AND MAPS
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// Examine E peek() E element()
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Both methods retrieve the head element, but do not remove it from the queue If the queue is empty, the peek() method returns null, but the element() method throws a NoSuchElementException
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The PriorityQueue<E> and LinkedList<E> Classes
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Both the PriorityQueue and LinkedList classes implement the Queue interface Unless bi-directional traversal is necessary, other queue implementations should be considered, and not the LinkedList class (The LinkedList class is also eclipsed by the introduction of the ArrayDeque class when it comes to implementing deques, as we will see shortly) As the name suggests, the PriorityQueue class is the obvious implementation for a queue with priority ordering The implementation is based on a priority heap, a treelike structure that yields an element at the head of the queue according to the priority ordering, which is defined either by the natural ordering of its elements or by a comparator In the case of several elements having the same priority, one of them is chosen arbitrarily Elements of a PriorityQueue are not sorted The queue only guarantees that elements can be removed in priority order, and any traversal using an iterator does not guarantee to abide by the priority order The PriorityQueue class provides the following constructors:
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PriorityQueue() PriorityQueue(Collection< extends E> c)
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The default constructor creates a new, empty PriorityQueue with default initial capacity and natural ordering The second constructor creates a new PriorityQueue containing the elements in the specified collection It will have natural ordering of its elements, unless the specified collection is either a SortedSet or another PriorityQueue, in which case, the collection s ordering will be used
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PriorityQueue(int initialCapacity) PriorityQueue(int initialCapacity, Comparator< super E> comparator)
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The first constructor creates a new, empty PriorityQueue with the specified initial capacity and natural ordering The second constructor creates a new, empty PriorityQueue with the specified initial capacity, but the ordering is defined by the specified comparator
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PriorityQueue(PriorityQueue< extends E> pq) PriorityQueue(SortedSet< extends E> set)
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The constructors create a new PriorityQueue with the ordering and the elements from the specified priority queue or sorted set, respectively
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157: QUEUES
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Example 1519 illustrates using priority queues The example shows how two priority queues maintain objects of the class Task The equality of objects in this class is based on the task number (Integer), as is the natural ordering of the objects The natural ordering implemented by the class Task will result in the priority queue yielding its elements in ascending order of the task numbers, ie, tasks with smaller task numbers will have higher priority The class Task also defines two comparators at (1) and (2) The first one defines a total ordering of tasks based on descending order of the task name (String), and the second one takes both task number and task name into consideration The main() method in the class TaskExecutor creates an array with some tasks at (3) Tasks from this array will be loaded into a priority queue The method testPQ() at (5) uses the priority queue it receives as argument It loads the queue at (6) from the array, which is also passed as argument It calls the offer() method to insert a task in the priority queue The testPQ() method calls the peek() method at (7) to examine the task at the head of the queue The tasks are executed by removing them one by one at (8) by calling the poll() method The priority queue pq1 at (3) has its priority ordering defined by the natural ordering of the tasks Note that the textual representation of the queue in the output
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Queue before executing tasks: [100@breakfast, 200@lunch, 300@dinner, 200@tea]
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does not show the tasks in priority order It just shows what task there are in the queue The textual representation of the queue is generated by the print method running an iterator over the queue The iterator is under no obligation to take the priority order into consideration The output also shows that the task with the highest priority (ie, the smallest task number) is at the head of the queue:
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