15: COLLECTIONS AND MAPS in Java

Generation QR in Java 15: COLLECTIONS AND MAPS
CHAPTER 15: COLLECTIONS AND MAPS
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given sorted order Traversal order will be discussed together with the individual concrete classes The concrete collection classes override the toString() method to provide a textual representation of their contents The standard textual representation generated by the toString() method for a collection is
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[element1,
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element2,
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,
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elementn]
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where each elementi is the textual representation generated by the toString() method of the individual elements in the collection In Example 1512 the toString() method of the collection class is used implicitly at (2) and at (7) to generate a textual representation for the collection
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Using the for(:) Loop to Traverse a Collection
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In Section 63, p 220, we showed how to traverse an array using a for(:) loop A for(:) loop can also be used to traverse any data structure that implements the javalangIterable interface:
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interface Iterable<E> { Iterator<E> iterator(); }
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The iterator() method returns an iterator that implements the Iterator interface we have seen earlier in this subsection The Iterable interface implies that if a collection implements an iterator, we can traverse the collection with a for(:) loop In the loop construct
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for (type
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expression) statement
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the value of expression can be a reference value that refers to a collection that implements the Iterable interface From Figure 152 we see that the Collection interface extends the Iterable interface, therefore all collections that implement the Collection interface can be traversed using the for(:) loop A collection that implements the Collection interface and thereby the Iterable interface, has the element type E This element type E must be assignable to the type of the variable in the for(:) loop The variable is assigned the reference value of a new element in the collection each time the body of the loop is executed The semantics of the for(:) loop discussed in Section 63, p 220, also apply when traversing a collection In particular, any structural change to the collection (adding or removing elements) in the for(:) loop will result in a ConcurrentModificationException Example 1513 illustrates using a for(:) loop to traverse a collection An empty collection of string builders is created at (1) and populated at (2) using a for(:) loop that traverses over an array of string builders The collection is traversed in the for(:) loop at (3), reversing and printing the contents of each string builder in the collection The output verifies that the state of each element in the collection was changed
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153: COLLECTIONS
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Behind the scenes, however, an appropriate iterator is used to traverse the collection, but the for(:) loop simplifies traversing a collection in the source code Note that if the collection is ordered or sorted, the iterator will traverse the collection in the ordering used to maintain the elements in the collection For example, in the case of an ArrayList, the iterator will yield the elements in the same order as the insertion order In the case of a TreeSet, the iterator will yield the elements in the sort ordering used to maintain the elements in the set If the collection is unordered, the order in which the iterator will yield the elements is not predictable Thus, we cannot be sure in which order a Hashset will be traversed
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Example 1513 Using a for(:) Loop to Iterate Over a Collection import javautilArrayList; import javautilCollection; public class IterateOverCollection { public static void main(String[] args) { // Create an empty collection of StringBuilders Collection<StringBuilder> words = new ArrayList<StringBuilder>(); // An array of StringBuilders StringBuilder[] strArray = { new StringBuilder("t noD"), new StringBuilder("etareti"), new StringBuilder("!em") }; // Add StringBuilders from the array to the collection for (StringBuilder str : strArray) { wordsadd(str); } Systemoutprintln("Before: " + words); // Iterate over a collection of StringBuilders // Expression type is Collection<StringBuilder>, // and element type is StringBuilder for (StringBuilder word : words) { Systemoutprint(wordreverse() + " "); } Systemoutprintln(); Systemoutprintln("After: " + words); } }
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// (1)
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Output from the program:
Before: [t'noD, etareti, !em] Don't iterate me! After: [Don't, iterate, me!]