151: COMPARING OBJECTS in Java

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Example 151 A Test Case for Version Numbers import import import import import import import import javautilArrays; javautilCollections; javautilHashMap; javautilList; javautilMap; javautilTreeMap; javautilTreeSet; static javalangSystemout;
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public class TestCaseVNO { /** Type parameter N represents a class implementing a version number */ public static <N> void test( // (1) N latest, // (2a) N inShops, // (2b) N older, // (2c) N[] versions, // (3) Integer[] downloads) { // (4) // Print the class name outprintln(latestgetClass());
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// (5)
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// Various tests outprintln("Test object reference and value equality:"); outprintf (" latest: %s, inShops: %s, older: %s%n" , latest, inShops, older); outprintln(" latest == inShops: " + (latest == inShops)); // outprintln(" latestequals(inShops): " + (latestequals(inShops))); // outprintln(" latest == older: " + (latest == older)); // outprintln(" latestequals(older): " + latestequals(older));// N searchKey = inShops; boolean found = false; for (N version : versions) { found = searchKeyequals(version); if (found) break; } outprintln("Array: " + ArraystoString(versions)); outprintln(" Search key " + searchKey + " found in array: " + found);
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(6) (7) (8) (9)
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// (10)
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// (11)
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// (12) // (13)
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List<N> vnoList = ArraysasList(versions); // (14) outprintln("List: " + vnoList); outprintln(" Search key " + searchKey + " contained in list: " + vnoListcontains(searchKey)); // (15) Map<N, Integer> versionStatistics = new HashMap<N, Integer>(); for (int i = 0; i < versionslength; i++) versionStatisticsput(versions[i], downloads[i]); outprintln("Map: " + versionStatistics); outprintln(" Hash code for keys in the map:"); for (N version : versions) // (16) // (17) // (18) // (19)
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CHAPTER 15: COLLECTIONS AND MAPS outprintf(" %10s: %s%n", version, versionhashCode()); outprintln(" Search key " + searchKey + " has hash code: " + searchKeyhashCode()); outprintln(" Map contains search key " + searchKey + ": " + versionStatisticscontainsKey(searchKey)); outprintln("Sorted set:\n " + (new TreeSet<N>(vnoList))); outprintln("Sorted map:\n " + (new TreeMap<N, Integer>(versionStatistics))); outprintln("List before sorting: " + vnoList); Collectionssort(vnoList, null); outprintln("List after sorting: " + vnoList);
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// (20) // (21) // (22) // (23)
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// (24)
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int resultIndex = CollectionsbinarySearch(vnoList, searchKey, null);// (25) outprintln("Binary search in list found key " + searchKey + " at index: " + resultIndex); } }
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Output from running the program in Example 159, p 769, that uses the TestCaseVNO class:
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class VersionNumber Test object reference and value equality: latest: (911), inShops: (911), older: (666) latest == inShops: false latestequals(inShops): true latest == older: false latestequals(older): false Array: [(3491), (81981), (24828), (102378), (911)] Search key (911) found in array: true List: [(3491), (81981), (24828), (102378), (911)] Search key (911) contained in list: true Map: {(911)=123, (24828)=54, (81981)=786, (3491)=245, (102378)=1010} Hash code for keys in the map: (3491): 332104 (81981): 336059 (24828): 331139 (102378): 338102 (911): 336382 Search key (911) has hash code: 336382 Map contains search key (911): true Sorted set: [(24828), (3491), (81981), (911), (102378)] Sorted map: {(24828)=54, (3491)=245, (81981)=786, (911)=123, (102378)=1010} List before sorting: [(3491), (81981), (24828), (102378), (911)] List after sorting: [(24828), (3491), (81981), (911), (102378)] Binary search in list found key (911) at index: 3
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The workings of the test() method in Example 151 are best understood in terms of what it prints The output shown in Example 151 corresponds to running the
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151: COMPARING OBJECTS
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program in Example 159, p 769 This program calls the test() method with objects of the VersionNumber class from Example 158 The VersionNumber class overrides the equals() and the hashCode() methods, and implements the Comparable interface The version numbers are tested for both object reference and object value equality The object referenced by the reference latest is compared with the object referenced by the reference inShops and with the object referenced by the reference older, as shown at (6), (7), (8), and (9) The output from the program shows that the result is false for object reference equality and the result for object value equality is true if the objects have the same state Overriding the equals() method appropriately makes it possible to search for objects in arrays, collections, or maps Searching involves specifying a copy object, called the search key, which can be compared with objects in the collection Searching in an array is illustrated by the code from (10) to (13) As can be seen from the output, searching for the version number (911) in the versions array is successful The versions array is converted to a List at (14), referenced by the reference vnoList, and the contains() method is called at (15) to determine whether the search key is in this list The contains() method of a List relies on the equals() method provided by its elements The result is, as expected, true An empty HashMap is created at (16) and populated at (17) with version numbers as keys and Integer objects as values, based on the associative arrays versions and downloads The versionStatistics map is printed at (18) Hash codes for all the map keys are printed at (19), and the hash code for the search key is printed at (20) Since the hashCode() method is overridden by the version number class, the attempt to determine whether the search key is in the map is successful A sorted set and a sorted map are created from the vnoList list and the versionStatistics map at (22) and (23), respectively The program output shows that the version numbers in the TreeSet and the TreeMap are sorted in natural ordering The unsorted vnoList is sorted successfully at (24) Finally, a binary search for the key in the sorted list at (25) is also reported to be successful At (24) and (25), the null value is passed as a comparator The method called then assumes natural ordering This was necessary to avoid compile time errors with some of the implementations of the version number discussed in this section
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