{ // Constructor body in Java

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<local variable declarations> <nested local class declarations> <statements>
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Constructor declarations are very much like method declarations However, the following restrictions on constructors should be noted: Modifiers other than an accessibility modifier are not permitted in the constructor header For accessibility modifiers for constructors, see Section 49 on page 138 Constructors cannot return a value and, therefore, do not specify a return type, not even void, in the constructor header But their declaration can use the return statement that does not return a value in the constructor body (Section 64, p 228) The constructor name must be the same as the class name Class names and method names exist in different namespaces Thus, there are no name conflicts in Example 33, where a method declared at (2) has the same name as the constructor declared at (1) However, using such naming schemes is strongly discouraged
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34: CONSTRUCTORS
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Example 33
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Namespaces
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public class Name { Name() { // (1) Systemoutprintln("Constructor"); } void Name() { // (2) Systemoutprintln("Method"); } public static void main(String[] args) { new Name()Name(); // (3) Constructor call followed by method call } }
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Output from the program:
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Constructor Method
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The Default Constructor
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A default constructor is a constructor without any parameters, ie, it is a no-parameter constructor It has the following signature: <class name>() If a class does not specify any constructors, then an implicit default constructor is generated for the class by the compiler The implicit default constructor is equivalent to the following implementation: <class name>() { super(); }
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// No parameters Calls superclass constructor
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The only action taken by the implicit default constructor is to call the superclass constructor This ensures that the inherited state of the object is initialized properly (see Section 75, p 302) In addition, all instance variables in the object are set to the default value of their type, barring those that are initialized by an initialization expression in their declaration In the following code, the class Light does not specify any constructors
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class Light { // Fields: int noOfWatts; boolean indicator; String location; // No constructors // }
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// wattage // on or off // placement
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50 class Greenhouse { // Light oneLight = new Light(); }
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CHAPTER 3: DECLARATIONS
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// (1) Call to implicit default constructor
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In the code above, the following implicit default constructor is called when a Light object is created by the object creation expression at (1):
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Light() { super(); }
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Creating an object using the new operator with the implicit default constructor, as at (1), will initialize the fields of the object to their default values (that is, the fields noOfWatts, indicator, and location in a Light object will be initialized to 0, false, and null, respectively) A class can choose to provide an implementation of the default constructor In the following example, the class Light provides an explicit default constructor at (1) Note that it has the same name as the class, and that it does not specify any parameters
class Light { // // Explicit Light() { noOfWatts indicator location } // }
Default Constructor: // (1) = 50; = true; = "X";
class Greenhouse { // Light extraLight = new Light(); }
// (2) Call of explicit default constructor
The explicit default constructor ensures that any object created with the object creation expression new Light(), as at (2), will have its fields noOfWatts, indicator and location initialized to 50, true and "X", respectively If a class defines any explicit constructors, it can no longer rely on the implicit default constructor to set the state of its objects If such a class requires a default constructor, its implementation must be provided In the example below, the class Light only provides a non-default constructor at (1) It is called at (2) when an object of the class Light is created with the new operator Any attempt to call the default constructor will be flagged as a compile-time error, as shown at (3)
class Light { // // Only non-default Constructor: Light(int noOfWatts, boolean indicator, String location) { thisnoOfWatts = noOfWatts; thisindicator = indicator; thislocation = location; }
// (1)
34: CONSTRUCTORS // } class Greenhouse { // Light moreLight = new Light(100, true, "Greenhouse"); //Light firstLight = new Light(); error }