33: METHOD DECLARATIONS in Java

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33: METHOD DECLARATIONS
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Statements
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Statements in Java can be grouped into various categories Variable declarations with explicit initialization of the variables are called declaration statements (see Section 23, p 31, and Section 36, p 71) Other basic forms of statements are control flow statements (see Section 61, p 204) and expression statements An expression statement is an expression terminated by a semicolon The expression is evaluated for its side effect and its value discarded Only certain types of expressions have meaning as statements They include the following: assignments (see Section 55, p 169) increment and decrement operators (see Section 58, p 186) method calls (see Section 37, p 81) object creation expressions with the new operator (see Section 515, p 201) A solitary semicolon denotes the empty statement that does nothing A block, {}, is a compound statement which can be used to group zero or more local declarations and statements (see Section 46, p 131) Blocks can be nested, since a block is a statement that can contain other statements A block can be used in any context where a simple statement is permitted The compound statement which is embodied in a block, begins at the left brace, {, and ends with a matching right brace, } Such a block must not be confused with an array initialization block in declaration statements (see Section 36, p 71) Labeled statements are discussed in Section 64 on page 223
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Instance Methods and the Object Reference this
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Instance methods belong to every object of the class and can only be invoked on objects All members defined in the class, both static and non-static, are accessible in the context of an instance method The reason is that all instance methods are passed an implicit reference to the current object, that is, the object on which the method is being invoked The current object can be referenced in the body of the instance method by the keyword this In the body of the method, the this reference can be used like any other object reference to access members of the object In fact, the keyword this can be used in any non-static context The this reference can be used as a normal reference to reference the current object, but the reference cannot be modified it is a final reference (Section 410, p 148) The this reference to the current object is useful in situations where a local variable hides, or shadows, a field with the same name In Example 32, the two parameters noOfWatts and indicator in the constructor of the Light class have the same names as the fields in the class The example also declares a local variable location, which has the same name as one of the fields The reference this can be used to distinguish the fields from the local variables At (1), the this reference is used to identify the field noOfWatts, which is assigned the value of the parameter noOfWatts Without
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CHAPTER 3: DECLARATIONS
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the this reference at (2), the value of the parameter indicator is assigned back to this parameter, and not to the field by the same name, resulting in a logical error Similarly at (3), without the this reference, it is the local variable location that is assigned the value of the parameter site, and not the field by the same name
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Example 32
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public class Light { // Fields: int noOfWatts; boolean indicator; String location;
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// wattage // on or off // placement
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// Constructor public Light(int noOfWatts, boolean indicator, String site) { String location; thisnoOfWatts = noOfWatts; indicator = indicator; location = site; thissuperfluous(); superfluous(); } public void superfluous() { Systemoutprintln(this); } // (5) // // // // // (1) Assignment to field (2) Assignment to parameter (3) Assignment to local variable (4) equivalent to call at (4)
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public static void main(String[] args) { Light light = new Light(100, true, "loft"); Systemoutprintln("No of watts: " + lightnoOfWatts); Systemoutprintln("Indicator: " + lightindicator); Systemoutprintln("Location: " + lightlocation); } }
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Output from the program:
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