Selected Logical Operators Logical Operator in Java

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Table 1212
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Selected Logical Operators Logical Operator
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R | U RU
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(R and U are regular expressions) Matches Either R or U (Logical OR)
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R followed by U
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Example
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^[a-z]|\ $, a lowercase letter at the beginning or a at the end of the line [Jj][aA][vV][aA], any occurrence of Java
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(Logical AND, concatenation)
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(R) R as a
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in upper or lowercase letters
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(^[a-z])|(\ $)
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group
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Quantifiers
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Quantifiers are powerful operators that repeatedly try to match a regular expression with the remaining characters in the input These quantifiers (also called repetition operators) are defined as follows: R , that matches the regular expression R zero or one time R*, that matches the regular expression R zero or more times R+, that matches the regular expression R one or more times The pattern a is matched with a target string in the following example:
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Index: Target: Pattern: Match: 012345 banana a (0,0:)(1,1:a)(2,2:)(3,3:a)(4,4:)(5,5:a)(6,6:)
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The pattern a is interpreted as an a or as the empty string There is a match with the pattern a at every character in the target When the current character is not an a in the target, the empty string is returned as the match We can regard this as the engine inserting empty strings in the input to match the pattern a This behavior does not alter the target
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126: STRING PATTERN MATCHING USING REGULAR EXPRESSIONS
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The pattern \d\d -\d\d -\d\d is used as a simplified date format in the following example The regular expression \d\d represents any one or any two digits
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Index: Target: Pattern: Match: 01234567890123456789012345678901 01-3-49 23-12 9-09-09 01-01-2010 \d\d -\d\d -\d\d (0,6:01-3-49)(14,20:9-09-09)(22,29:01-01-20)
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The pattern a* is interpreted as a non-zero sequence of a s or as the empty string (meaning no a s) The engine returns an empty string as the match, when the character in the input cannot be a part of a sequence of a s
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Index: Target: Pattern: Match: 01234567 baananaa a* (0,0:)(1,2:aa)(3,3:)(4,4:a)(5,5:)(6,7:aa)(8,8:)
The pattern (0|[1-9]\d*)\\d\d recognizes all non-zero-leading, positive floatingpoint numbers that have at least one digit in the integral part and exactly two decimal places Note that the regular expression \d* is equivalent to the regular expression [0-9]*
Index: Target: Pattern: Match: 0123456789012345678901234567890 50 150 050 1050 0050 1555 (0|[1-9]\d*)\\d\d (4,7:150)(9,12:050)(14,18:1050)(21,24:050)(26,29:155)
The regular expression \d* used in the above pattern represents a sequence of digits or the empty string A sequence of digits is some permutation of the digits from 0 to 9 In other words, the regular expression \d* represents all permutations of digits, which is also all non-negative integers, plus the empty string The pattern a+ is interpreted as a non-zero sequence of a s, ie, at least one a Compare the results below with the results for using the pattern a* above on the same target No empty strings are returned when an a cannot be matched in the target
Index: Target: Pattern: Match: 01234567 baananaa a+ (1,2:aa)(4,4:a)(6,7:aa)
The regular expression \d+ represents all permutations of digits The pattern \d+\d+ represents all positive floating-point numbers that have at least one digit in the integral part and at least one digit in the fraction part Note that \d+ is equivalent to [0-9]+
Index: Target: Pattern: Match: 01234567890123456789012345678 50 150 0 1050 0050 1555 \d+\\d+ (4,7:150)(12,16:1050)(18,22:0050)(24,28:1555)
The quantifiers presented above are called greedy quantifiers Such a quantifier reads as much input as possible, and backtracks if necessary, to match as much of the input as possible In other words, it will return the longest possible match An
CHAPTER 12: LOCALIZATION, PATTERN MATCHING, AND FORMATTING
engine for a greedy quantifier is eager to return a match If it backtracks, it will do so until it finds the first valid match The example below illustrates greediness The pattern <+> is supposed to recognize a tag, ie, a non-zero sequence of characters enclosed in angle brackets (< >) The example below shows that only one tag is found in the target The greedy quantifier + returns the longest possible match in the input
Index: Target: Pattern: Match: 012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234 My <>very<> <emphasis>greedy</emphasis> regex <+> (3,38:<>very<> <emphasis>greedy</emphasis>)
There are counterparts to the greedy quantifiers called the reluctant and the possessive quantifiers (see Table 1213) A reluctant quantifier (also called lazy quantifier) only reads enough of the input to match the pattern Such a quantifier will apply its regular expression as few times as possible, only expanding the match as the engine backtracks to find a match for the overall regular expression In other words, it will return the shortest possible match The example below illustrates reluctantness/laziness The pattern <+ > uses the reluctant quantifier + , and is supposed to recognize a tag as before The example below shows the result of applying the pattern to a target The reluctant quantifier + returns the shortest possible match for each tag recognized in the input
Index: Target: Pattern: Match: 012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567 My <>very<> <emphasis>reluctant</emphasis> regex <+ > (3,10:<>very<>)(12,21:<emphasis>)(31,41:</emphasis>)
The result is certainly better with the reluctant quantifier We can improve the matching by using the trick shown in this pattern: <[^>]+> Since the match has two enclosing angle brackets, the pattern negates the end angle bracket, creating a character class that excludes the end angle bracket The engine can keep expanding the tag name as long as no end angle bracket is found in the input When this bracket is found in the input, a match can be announced, without incurring the penalty of backtracking Note that the pattern below is using the greedy quantifier +
Index: Target: Pattern: Match: 01234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456 My <>very<> <emphasis>powerful</emphasis> regex <[^>]+> (12,21:<emphasis>)(30,40:</emphasis>)
Lastly, there are the possessive quantifiers that always consume the entire input, and then go for one make-or-break attempt to find a match A possessive quantifier never backtracks, even if doing so would succeed in finding a match There are certain situations where possessive quantifiers can outperform the other types of quantifiers, but we will not pursue the subject any further in this book