114: CHARACTER STREAMS: READERS AND WRITERS Figure 114 in Java

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114: CHARACTER STREAMS: READERS AND WRITERS Figure 114
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Setting up a PrintWriter to Write to a File
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Object of class PrintWriter Object of class Object of class OutputStreamWriter FileOutputStream characters
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(a) Object of class PrintWriter
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(c) Object of class PrintWriter
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The underlying OutputStreamWriter is created to write the characters to the file in the default encoding, as shown in Figure 114d In this case, there is no automatic flushing If a specific character encoding is desired for the writer, the first procedure (Figure 114a) can be used, the encoding being specified for the OutputStreamWriter:
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FileOutputStream outputFile = new FileOutputStream("infotxt"); OutputStreamWriter outputStream = new OutputStreamWriter(outputFile, "8859_1"); PrintWriter printWriter4 = new PrintWriter(outputStream, true);
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CHAPTER 11: FILES AND STREAMS
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This writer will use the 8859_1 character encoding to write the characters to the file Alternatively, we can use one of the two PrintWriter constructors that accept a character encoding:
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PrintWriter printWriter5 = new PrintWriter("infotxt", "8859_1");
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A BufferedWriter can be also used to improve the efficiency of writing characters to the underlying stream (explained later in this subsection)
Reading Text Files
Java primitive values and objects cannot be read directly from their text representation Characters must be read and converted to the relevant values explicitly One common strategy is to write lines of text and tokenize the characters as they are read, a line at a time (see the subsection The javautilScanner Class, p 571) Such files are usually called text files When reading characters from a file using the default character encoding, the following two procedures for setting up an InputStreamReader can be used Setting up an InputStreamReader which is chained to a FileInputStream (Figure 115a): 1 2 Create a FileInputStream:
FileInputStream inputFile = new FileInputStream("infotxt");
Create an InputStreamReader which is chained to the FileInputStream:
InputStreamReader reader = new InputStreamReader(inputFile);
The InputStreamReader uses the default character encoding for reading the characters from the file
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Object of class Object of class FileInputStream InputStreamReader characters
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114: CHARACTER STREAMS: READERS AND WRITERS
Setting up a FileReader which is a subclass of InputStreamReader (Figure 115b): 1 Create a FileReader:
FileReader fileReader = new FileReader("infotxt");
This is equivalent to having an InputStreamReader chained to a FileInputStream for reading the characters from the file, using the default character encoding Other constructors of the FileReader class accept a File or a FileDescriptor If a specific character encoding is desired for the reader, the first procedure must be used (Figure 115a), the encoding being specified for the InputStreamReader:
FileInputStream inputFile = new FileInputStream("infotxt"); InputStreamReader reader = new InputStreamReader(inputFile, "8859_1");
This reader will use the 8859_1 character encoding to read the characters from the file A BufferedReader can also be used to improve the efficiency of reading characters from the underlying stream, as explained later in this section
Using Buffered Writers
A BufferedWriter can be chained to the underlying writer by using one of the following constructors:
BufferedWriter(Writer out) BufferedWriter(Writer out, int size)
The default buffer size is used, unless the buffer size is explicitly specified Characters, strings, and arrays of characters can be written using the methods for a Writer, but these now use buffering to provide efficient writing of characters In addition, the BufferedWriter class provides the method newLine() for writing the platform-dependent line-separator The following code creates a PrintWriter whose output is buffered and the characters are written using the 8859_1 character encoding (Figure 116a):
FileOutputStream OutputStreamWriter BufferedWriter PrintWriter outputFile outputStream bufferedWriter1 printWriter1 = = = = new new new new FileOutputStream("infotxt"); OutputStreamWriter(outputFile, "8859_1"); BufferedWriter(outputStream); PrintWriter(bufferedWriter1, true);
The following code creates a PrintWriter whose output is buffered, and the characters are written using the default character encoding (Figure 116b):
FileWriter fileWriter = new FileWriter("infotxt"); BufferedWriter bufferedWriter2 = new BufferedWriter(fileWriter); PrintWriter printWriter2 = new PrintWriter(bufferedWriter2, true);
Note that in both cases, the PrintWriter is used to write the characters The Buffered Writer is sandwiched between the PrintWriter and the underlying OutputStream Writer