714: BASIC CONCEPTS IN OBJECT-ORIENTED DESIGN in Java

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714: BASIC CONCEPTS IN OBJECT-ORIENTED DESIGN
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methods that contradict the abstraction represented by the subclass can be invoked, as shown at (6) Using aggregation in such a case results in a better solution, as demonstrated by the class QueueByAggregation at (3) The class defines the operations of a queue by delegating such requests to the underlying class LinkedList Clients implementing a queue in this manner do not have access to the underlying class and, therefore, cannot break the abstraction Both inheritance and aggregation promote encapsulation of implementation, as changes to the implementation are localized to the class Changing the contract of a superclass can have consequences for the subclasses (called the ripple effect) and also for clients who are dependent on a particular behavior of the subclasses Polymorphism is achieved through inheritance and interface implementation Code relying on polymorphic behavior will still work without any change if new subclasses or new classes implementing the interface are added If no obvious is-a relationship is present, polymorphism is best achieved by using aggregation with interface implementation
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714 Basic Concepts in Object-Oriented Design
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In this section, we provide a brief explanation of some basic concepts in objectoriented (OO) design The reader is encouraged to consult the vast body of literature that is readily available on this subject
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Encapsulation
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An object has properties and behaviors that are encapsulated inside the object The services it offers to its clients comprises its contract, or public interface Only the contract defined by the object is available to the clients The implementation of its properties and behavior is not a concern of the clients Encapsulation helps to make clear the distinction between an object s contract and implementation This has major consequences for program development The implementation of an object can change without implications for the clients Encapsulation also reduces complexity, as the internals of an object are hidden from the clients who cannot alter its implementation Encapsulation is achieved through information hiding, by making judicious use of language features provided for this purpose Information hiding in Java can be achieved at different levels of granularity: method or block level Localizing information in a method hides it from the outside class level The accessibility of members declared in a class can be controlled through member accessibility modifiers One much-advocated information-hiding technique
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CHAPTER 7: OBJECT-ORIENTED PROGRAMMING
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is to prevent direct access by clients to data maintained by an object The fields of the object are private and its contract defines public methods for the services provided by the object Such tight encapsulation helps to separate the use from the implementation of a class package level Classes that belong together can be grouped into relevant packages by using the package statement Inter-package accessibility of classes can be controlled by class accessibility modifiers
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Cohesion
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Cohesion is an inter-class measure of how well-structured and closely-related the functionality is in a class The objective is to design classes with high cohesion, that perform well-defined and related tasks (also called functional cohesion) The public methods of a highly cohesive class typically implement a single specific task that is related to the purpose of the class For example, in an MVC-based application, the respective classes for the Model, the View, and the Controller should be focused on providing functionality that only relates to their individual purpose A method in one class should not perform a task that should actually be implemented by one of the other two classes Lack of cohesion in a class means that the purpose of the class is not focused, and unrelated functionality is ending up in the class (also called coincidental cohesion) which will eventually impact the maintainability of the application
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Coupling
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Coupling is a measure of intra-class dependencies Objects need to interact with each other, therefore dependencies between classes are inherent in OO design However, these dependencies should be minimized in order to achieve loose coupling, which aids in creating extensible applications One major source of intra-class dependencies is the exposure of implementation details of an object Such details can be utilized by other objects, and this dependency can impede changes in the implementation, resulting in less extensible applications High cohesion and loose coupling help to achieve the main goals of OO design: maintainability, reusability, extensibility, and reliability
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