PARAMETERS AND RETURN VALUES in Java

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PARAMETERS AND RETURN VALUES
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to export As long as a deriving class has access to the virtual function table for your base class, it is aware of the pure virtual function and is forced to implement it In the rare cases where a pure virtual function has a function body, it must be exported The virtual function table for a class is created and updated by the constructor of the base class and any intermediate classes If you don t export a constructor, when a separate code module comes to inherit from your class, the derived constructor will be unable to access the default constructor of your class in order to generate the virtual function table This is why any class which has virtual functions must export a constructor Remember the rule that you must not export inline functions Since you re exporting the constructor, you must implement it in your source module, even if it s empty, rather than inline it A good example of this is class CBase (de ned in e32baseh), which de nes and exports a protected default constructor The rules of exporting functions are as follows: never export an inline function only those non-virtual functions which need to be used outside a DLL should be exported private functions should only be exported if they are called by a public inline function protected functions should be exported if they are called by a public inline function or if they are likely to be called by a derived class which may be implemented in another code module all virtual functions, public, protected or private, should be exported, since they may be re-implemented in a separate module pure virtual functions should not be exported unless they contain code any class which has virtual functions must also export a (noninlined) constructor, even if it is empty
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203 Parameters and Return Values
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Let s move on to think about the de nitions of class methods in terms of parameters and return values I ll compare passing and returning values
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by value, reference and pointer, and state a few general guidelines for good C++ practice on Symbian OS
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Pass and Return by Value
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void PassByValue(TExample aParameter); TExample ReturnAValue();
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Passing a parameter by value, or returning a value, takes a copy of the argument or nal return value This can potentially be expensive, since it invokes the copy constructor for the object (and any objects it encapsulates) as well as using additional stack space for the copy When the object passed in or returned goes out of scope, its destructor is called This is certainly less ef cient than passing a reference or pointer to the object as it currently exists, and you should avoid it for large or complex objects such as descriptors1 However, it is insigni cant for small objects (say less than eight bytes) and the built-in types (TBool, TText, TInt, TUint and TReal) Of course, by taking a copy of the parameter, the original is left unchanged, so a parameter passed by value is most de nitely a constant input-only parameter You may even choose to return an object by const value in some cases This prevents cases of assignment to the return value which is illegal for methods that return the built-in types You should strive to make your own types behave like built-in types and may choose to use a const return value to enforce this behavior when you are returning an instance of your class by value
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Pass and Return by const Reference
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void PassByConstRef(const TExample& aParameter); const TExample& ReturnAConstRef();
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Passing an object by const reference prevents the parameter from being modi ed and should be used for constant input parameters larger than the built-in types Equally, for ef ciency reasons, returning a value as a constant reference should be used in preference to taking a copy of a larger object to return it by value You must be careful when returning an object by reference, whether it is modi able or constant, because the caller of the function and the function itself must agree on the
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1 When passing objects by reference or pointer, a 32-bit pointer value is transferred This minimal memory requirement is xed, regardless of the type to which it points Internally, a reference is implemented as a pointer, with additional syntax to remove the inconvenience of indirection
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