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Listing 33 Simple debugger events processing
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DWORD ProcessEvent(DEBUG_EVENT& dbgEvent) { switch (dbgEventdwDebugEventCode) { case EXCEPTION_DEBUG_EVENT: break; case CREATE_THREAD_DEBUG_EVENT: break; case CREATE_PROCESS_DEBUG_EVENT: break; case EXIT_THREAD_DEBUG_EVENT: break; case EXIT_PROCESS_DEBUG_EVENT: break; case LOAD_DLL_DEBUG_EVENT: break; case UNLOAD_DLL_DEBUG_EVENT: break; case OUTPUT_DEBUG_STRING_EVENT: break; case RIP_EVENT: break; } return DBG_CONTINUE ; }
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In the following sections, several cases from the switch statement in Listing 33 are detailed with the automated handling code, designed with the idea of providing reasonable default action Cases not described in the book are covered in 03sampleexe, and their understanding is left as an exercise for the reader Please note that a full-fledged debugger allows the user to examine and change the debugger target state before calling the ContinueDebugEvent API
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Processing OUTPUT_DEBUG_STRING_EVENT Software engineers often use debug output commands in their code with the goal of providing an easy-to-use tracing required to troubleshoot their code The exact syntax used differs between languages, but most syntax ends up calling one of the Windowsprovided debugging APIs, such as OutputDebugStringA or OutputDebugStringW The string output generated in such ways by the debugger target can be displayed by the debugger using event processing code similar to that shown in Listing 34 The
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DEBUG_EVENT structure contains an OUTPUT_DEBUG_STRING_INFO structure, which in turn contains message-specific information The lpDebugStringData member
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contains the address, relative to the debugger s target address space, of the string to be displayed, whereas nDebugStringLength contains the length of this string, and fUnicode tells if the characters are Unicode or ANSI characters The code uses the handle to the process where the event originated to read the message from the debugger target address space Listing 34 Processing output debug string event
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case OUTPUT_DEBUG_STRING_EVENT: //typedef struct _OUTPUT_DEBUG_STRING_INFO { // LPSTR lpDebugStringData; // WORD fUnicode; // WORD nDebugStringLength; //} OUTPUT_DEBUG_STRING_INFO, *LPOUTPUT_DEBUG_STRING_INFO; { OUTPUT_DEBUG_STRING_INFO& OutputDebug = dbgEventuDebugString; WCHAR * msg = ReadRemoteString(hTargetProcessHandle, OutputDebuglpDebugStringData, OutputDebugnDebugStringLength, OutputDebugfUnicode); std::wcout << L OutputDebugStringEvent\nMessage:\t ; std::wcout <<<< msg << std::endl; delete[] msg; break; }
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The ReadRemoteString function used in Listing 34 is a helper function abstracting the character size and string length from the OUTPUT_DEBUG_STRING_INFO structure, built around kernel32!ReadProcessMemory It reads the string from the debugger target address space and converts it to a null-terminated Unicode string as required by 03sampleexe The ReadRemoteString implementation is listed in Listing 35 Listing 35 Read a specific length string from the debugger target space
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WCHAR * ReadRemoteString(HANDLE process,LPVOID address,WORD length,BOOL unicode) { WCHAR * msg = new WCHAR[length]; if (!msg) return NULL; memset(msg, 0, sizeof(WCHAR)*(length));
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if ( unicode ) { ReadProcessMemory(process, address ,msg, length*sizeof(WCHAR),NULL); return msg; } else { CHAR * originalMsg = new CHAR[length]; if (!originalMsg) { delete[] msg; return NULL; } memset(originalMsg, 0, sizeof(BYTE)*(length)); ReadProcessMemory(process, address ,originalMsg, length,NULL); for (WORD i = 0; i < length; i++) { msg[i] = originalMsg[i]; } delete[] originalMsg; return msg; } }
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After the resulting string is displayed in the debugger console, the debugger loop continues The debugger target continues execution after the debugger enters back into the loop This additional activity performed by the debugger target changes the application execution timing, which can hide or expose race conditions in the application
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Processing EXCEPTION_DEBUG_EVENT The debugger target can generate several exceptions in the whole lifetime each type of exception being treated differently by the debugger Some exceptions have a special meaning to the debugger itself, whereas others have runtime meaning for the debugger target A debugger exception handler can be very complex This section just reveals the basics as required to understand the exception processing done by the debugger In the case of an EXCEPTION_DEBUG_EVENT, the DEBUG_EVENT structure contains an EXCEPTION_DEBUG_INFO structure containing a copy of the exception information packed as the EXCEPTION_RECORD structure in the ExceptionRecord member, as described in Listing 36 From EXCEPTION_RECORD, the debugger obtains the exception
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