INTRODUCTION TO THE DEBUGGERS in Software

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2 INTRODUCTION TO THE DEBUGGERS
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Listing 241 Obtaining the thread TEB
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0:000> !teb TEB at 7ffdf000 ExceptionList: StackBase: StackLimit: SubSystemTib: FiberData: ArbitraryUserPointer: Self: EnvironmentPointer: ClientId: RpcHandle: Tls Storage: PEB Address: LastErrorValue: LastStatusValue: Count Owned Locks: HardErrorMode:
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0006ff34 00070000 0006e000 00000000 00001e00 00000000 7ffdf000 00000000 000013b4 00001184 00000000 00000000 7ffdd000 203 c0000100 0 0
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The !teb extension command depends on the current thread context that can be changed using one of the options explained in the later section, Changing the Context
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Introduction to the Debuggers
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Win32 APIs do not always return the status code to the caller using the return value or one of the output parameters In fact, most APIs store the last error code in a thread-specific location preallocated in the thread environment block, accessed programmatically by using the kernel32!GetLastError API The value can be inspected immediately after an API failure by using the !gle extension command This command extracts the value and displays the formatted string to the user The command also displays the last NTSTATUS error that represents the error previously returned from a system API
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0:000> !gle LastErrorValue: (Win32) 0xcb (203) - The system could not find the environment option that was entered LastStatusValue: (NTSTATUS) 0xc0000100 - Indicates the specified environment variable name was not found in the specified environment block
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The command reads the error code from the current thread contexts The last useful command in this category is the simple <enter> or <CTRL>+M key that repeats the last entered commands This is useful only when the last command changes some internal state in the debugger, as is the case with d or u commands, and the operation is repeated for the next memory block
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Context-Changing Commands
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The following set of commands affect the state of the debugger target and are normally used to watch the debugger target in a controlled execution mode or to change the view interpreted by various extension commands
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Tracing Code Execution
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t is the basic command used to execute the code step-by-step, also known as tracing When we trace the code in assembly mode, it steps over a single assembly instruction at a time When the debugger runs in source mode, each step executes multiple assembly instructions representing a single line in source mode The mode can be controlled by the source option mode command, as you can see in the following listing:
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0:000> l+t Source options are 1: 1/t - Step/trace by source line 0:000> l-t Source options are 0: None
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Basic Debugger Tasks
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3 explains the mechanisms used by the debugger to implement the tracing functionality in assembly mode Source mode tracing is possible only in the modules for which the private symbols are available; otherwise, the debugger switches silently into assembly mode Tracing usefulness is limited to cases in which the register changes must be closely watched or the code execution must step into a method call instead of executing it entirely as a single statement, as you can see in the following listing:
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02sample!KBTest::Fibonacci_stdcall+0x4b: 004017ab e8b0ffffff call 02sample!KBTest::Fibonacci_stdcall (00401760) 0:000> t 02sample!KBTest::Fibonacci_stdcall: 00401760 8bff mov edi,edi
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When tracing a multithreaded application, any thread context switch schedules the executions of a different thread on the current processor While executing the new thread, the debugger can encounter a breakpoint or a different event requiring user attention, and the command can return with a different active thread and stack The engineer can prevent the context switch by prefixing the trace command with the desired thread number For example, the ~t command executes one statement on the current thread, while other threads are suspended
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SOURCE-LEVEL TRACING VERSUS ASSEMBLY LEVEL TRACING Many developers using tracing at the source code level have a really hard time debugging highly optimized code, as the debugger jumps back and forth between source lines The explanation lies in the number of processor statements the compiler generates for every source line and the way they are intermixed with code corresponding to another line, to maximize processor utilization In such cases, moving from source-level debugging to assembly-level debugging brings back the predictability of debugging tracing
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