Security in Software

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7 Security
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The integrity level is present in the process token as a special group, the third group having the system-integrity level SID value S-1-16-16384 Each object that must be accessible only to users running at a specific integrity level has the access encoded as an ACE entry in the SACL part of the object security descriptor Unlike the access checks based on the group membership where the permission is evaluated by testing each SID from the token against the matching SID from the security descriptor the mandatory system integrity level is tested taking into account the relative order of mandatory integrity levels SYSTEM integrity level is highest, followed by HIGH, MEDIUM, and LOW When the token used to access the resource runs at a lower level than the object integrity level, SYSTEM_MANDATORY_LABEL_ACE_TYPE flags control further access In Listing 1510, the flags are interpreted as follows:
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0x03 = SYSTEM_MANDATORY_LABEL_NO_WRITE_UP | SYSTEM_MANDATORY_LABEL_NO_READ_UP
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In this case, the object is not accessible to any user on the system except the LocalSystem principal Listing 1511 shows the same analysis for a process running under an account part of local administrator group, with UAC policy enabled Listing 1511
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kd> !process 0 1 explorerexe Peb: 7ffd7000 ParentCid: 09cc PROCESS 901674f0 SessionId: 1 Cid: 0c04 DirBase: 0a53e000 ObjectTable: 8f55b850 HandleCount: 599 Image: explorerexe VadRoot 82ec6428 Vads 337 Clone 0 Private 3112 Modified 27217 Locked 0 DeviceMap 927fb4f8 9256d890 Token kd> !token 9256d890 _TOKEN 9256d890 TS Session ID: 0x1 User: S-1-5-21-2084298851-3655559499-3523964647-1000 Groups: 00 S-1-5-21-2084298851-3655559499-3523964647-513 Attributes - Mandatory Default Enabled 01 S-1-1-0 Attributes - Mandatory Default Enabled 02 S-1-5-32-544 Attributes - DenyOnly 10 S-1-16-8192 Attributes - GroupIntegrity GroupIntegrityEnabled Primary Group: S-1-5-21-2084298851-3655559499-3523964647-513
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15 WINDOWS VISTA FUNDAMENTALS
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15
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Listing 1511
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Privs: 19 0x000000013 SeShutdownPrivilege Attributes 23 0x000000017 SeChangeNotifyPrivilege Attributes - Enabled Default 25 0x000000019 SeUndockPrivilege Attributes 33 0x000000021 SeIncreaseWorkingSetPrivilege Attributes 34 0x000000022 SeTimeZonePrivilege Attributes Authentication ID: (0,9ec99) Impersonation Level: Anonymous TokenType: Primary Source: User32 TokenFlags: 0xa00 ( Token in use ) Token ID: a2c7b ParentToken ID: 9ec9c Modified ID: (0, 173021) RestrictedSidCount: 0 RestrictedSids: 00000000 OriginatingLogonSession: 3e7 kd> !sd poi(901674f0-4) & 0xFFFFFFF8 ->Revision: 0x1 ->Sbz1 : 0x0 ->Control : 0x8814 SE_DACL_PRESENT SE_SACL_PRESENT SE_SACL_AUTO_INHERITED SE_SELF_RELATIVE ->Owner : S-1-5-21-2084298851-3655559499-3523964647-1000 ->Group : S-1-5-21-2084298851-3655559499-3523964647-513 ->Sacl ->Sacl ->Sacl ->Sacl ->Sacl ->Sacl ->Sacl ->Sacl ->Sacl ->Sacl ->Sacl : : : : : : : : : : :
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->AclRevision: 0x2 ->Sbz1 : 0x0 ->AclSize : 0x1c ->AceCount : 0x1 ->Sbz2 : 0x0 ->Ace[0]: ->AceType: SYSTEM_MANDATORY_LABEL_ACE_TYPE ->Ace[0]: ->AceFlags: 0x0 ->Ace[0]: ->AceSize: 0x14 ->Ace[0]: ->Mask : 0x00000003 ->Ace[0]: ->SID: S-1-16-8192
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7 Security
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The explorer s process token has a medium integrity level in this case, and the process token is restricted to an integrity level equal to or higher than medium Furthermore, the third SID in the process token is a restricted SID having the role of denying access to the resources accessible only to that restricted SID, Local Administrators represented by S-1-5-32-544 in this case It is important to mention that the restricted SID concept is not new Restricted SIDs are used in down-level platforms by applications using restricted tokens The integrity level can be, and is, applied to resources managed by other entities, such as the file system or registry keys The integrity level is not exposed in the usual places used to change the security on such resources The operating system installs a new integrity-level-aware tool, icalcsexe, that supersedes caclsexe icaclsexe displays or changes the integrity level of any file by using the setintegritylevel option with the desired integrity level However, the tool does not allow fine-tuning of the access allowed to lower integrity users, and it always uses the SYSTEM_ MANDATORY_LABEL_NO_WRITE_UP flag Listing 1512 checks the security on one of the sample files, changes its integrity level, and rechecks its security descriptor The new mandatory integrity level is set to medium, no write up Listing 1512
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C:\>icacls c:\AWDBIN\WinXPx86chk\01sampleexe c:\AWDBIN\WinXPx86chk\01sampleexe BUILTIN\Administrators:(I)(F) NT AUTHORITY\SYSTEM:(I)(F) BUILTIN\Users:(I)(RX) C:\>icacls c:\AWDBIN\WinXPx86chk\01sampleexe /setintegritylevel M processed file: c:\AWDBIN\WinXPx86chk\01sampleexe Successfully processed 1 files; Failed processing 0 files C:\>icacls c:\AWDBIN\WinXPx86chk\01sampleexe c:\AWDBIN\WinXPx86chk\01sampleexe BUILTIN\Administrators:(I)(F) NT AUTHORITY\SYSTEM:(I)(F) BUILTIN\Users:(I)(RX) Mandatory Label\Medium Mandatory Level:(NW) Successfully processed 1 files; Failed processing 0 files
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