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The kernel mode debugger can also open kernel dump files generated using the methods described in 13 Both kdexe and windbgexe can open kernel dumps, so choosing between them is a personal preference Windbgexe recognizes the kernel dump file type and starts in kernel mode debugging, without requiring any additional command-line parameter The following command lines are capable of opening the mini dump files captured automatically by the operating system in the %windir%\Minidump folder, as well as some manually generated ones
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C:\>kd -z %temp%\fulldmp C:\>kd -z %windir%\Minidump\Mini091704-01dmp C:\>windbg -z %wtemp%\fulldmp
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Redirecting a User Mode Debugger Through a Kernel Debugger
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One important feature of a kernel debugger is its capability to control a user mode debugger for the kernel debugger session and synchronize the user mode debugging session with the system activity Because the system activity is frozen while you are controlling the user mode debugger, you can use it to debug sequences expected to execute in a bound time period time relative to the system activity Since the kernel debugging session is already established at system boot time, you can debug processes early in the start-up phase or very late in the system shutdown phase when no interactive console is available The kernel debugger also gives you access to information not available from a user mode session debugger, making the combination the most powerful form of user mode debugging By starting the user mode debugger with the d parameter in the command line, any user mode debugger redirects its input and output to a kernel debugger, as in the following listing:
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C:\>ntsd d <Process Path> C:\>ntsd d p <PID>
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2 INTRODUCTION TO THE DEBUGGERS
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The kernel mode debugger must be enabled before using the redirection options Otherwise, the user mode debugger returns to the command prompt without executing the command passed in as a parameter However, with the kernel debugger enabled, the operating system allows low privilege users to stop the entire activity, which is not always desired When the debugger is in a state in which it waits for user input, either at the user mode prompt or the kernel mode prompt, as shown in Figure 24, the kernel activity
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Introduction to the Debuggers
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is suspended The exact state is clearly identifiable in the debugger input KD shows the user mode prompt as a regular user mode debugger, whereas WinDbg, used as a kernel debugger, shows the prompt as Input> instead of the regular kd> prompt It is not unusual to go back and forth between the kernel mode debugger and the user debugger before resolving problems involving interprocess communication After entering a new command at the user mode debugger prompt, the kernel mode debugger dispatches that command to the current user mode debugger and resumes the system activity, enabling the user mode debugger to perform the command If, after executing the command, the user mode debugger prompts the user, the system goes back to the user mode debugger prompt
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Kernel debugger prompt
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KM go KM debugger event
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breakin
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!bpid <pid> System normal run
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UM operation start UM prompt request UM operation complete UM debugger event
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User mode prompt
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Figure 24 State transition between a kernel mode prompt and a user mode prompt While in the user mode prompt state, it is possible to jump to the kernel mode prompt state by entering the breakin command in the user mode debugger The kernel debugger breaks in the context of the debugger process, not of the process being debugged:
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0:000> breakin breakin Break instruction exception - code 80000003 (first chance)
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Debugger Basics
nt!RtlpBreakWithStatusInstruction: 8051ac9c cc int 3 kd> !process -1 0 PROCESS ff7eeb38 SessionId: 0 Cid: 055c Peb: 7ffdf000 DirBase: 03983000 ObjectTable: e1a02fb8 HandleCount: Image: ntsdexe
ParentCid: 03c8 39
This command requires SeDebugPrivilege privileges for the debugger process itself, and it fails with an explicit error if the debugger does not run under an account having the debug privilege, as follows:
0:000> breakin breakin breakin requires debug privilege
In such cases, an alternative way to go into KD is to issue a break (using CTRL+C, CTRL+break, or CTRL+SysRq) after asking the user mode debugger to perform anything long running, such as a sleep command, as seen in Listing 25 The key combination CTRL+C is being interpreted by the kernel mode debugger as a kernel mode event Listing 25 Switching from user mode to kernel mode debugger
0:000> sleep 1000 sleep 1000 Break instruction exception - code 80000003 (first chance) *********************************************************************** * * * You are seeing this message because you pressed either * * CTRL+C (if you run kdexe) or * * CTRL+BREAK (if you run WinDBG) * * on your debugger machine s keyboard * * * * THIS IS NOT A BUG OR A SYSTEM CRASH * * * * If you did not intend to break into the debugger, press the g key,* * then press the Enter key now This message might immediately * * reappear If it does, press g and Enter again * * * *********************************************************************** nt!DbgBreakPointWithStatus+0x4: 8051ac9c cc int 3 kd>