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0:000> !token n TS Session ID: 0 User: S-1-5-21-1060284298-2111687655-1957994488-1003 (User: XP-SP1\TestAdmin)
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When the thread is not impersonating, the impersonation state is clearly shown in the dump in Listing 78 All threads in the system start their life in this state, regardless of the impersonating state of the thread creating them Listing 78 Using the kernel mode debugger
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kd> !thread ffad3020 THREAD ffad3020 Cid 045c03f0 Teb: 7ffdf000 Win32Thread: 00000000 RUNNING on processor 0 Not impersonating kd> * Token field is missing The thread is in Not impersonating state
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0:000> !token Thread is not impersonating Using process token
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Last, the access tokens are available as a result of various API calls creating or returning handles to access tokens If the handle value is known, either from the API output or by other methods, those access tokens can be inspected, as shown in Listing 75 When the thread impersonates an access token, every native API uses that identity to perform the necessary access checks If the thread is not impersonated, the process access token is to be used instead for each access check test, with one notable exception In the case of the advapi32!OpenThreadToken API, the developer can choose this identity between the primary access token process and the impersonation access token using the OpenAsSelf parameter However, we believe that any access token should always be accessible to the process using it A user mode application obtains the access token used by Security Reference Monitor by calling the advapi32!OpenThreadToken or the advapi32!OpenProcessToken API The same APIs are used by the user mode extension, extsdll, when implementing the !token extension command When the !token extension command shows no impersonating state for a thread under user mode debugger, the output should be taken with a grain of salt The extension always falls back to the primary token when it fails to get impersonation information, as we show later in the !token sections
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Where are security descriptors stored We know that all objects are secured by an attached security descriptor stored in various locations All kernel objects contain a
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common header structure, preceding the real object memory address The header structure, named _OBJECT_HEADER, contains, along with the reference counters and the object type, a pointer to the security descriptor protecting the object In Listing 7-9, we use a different running instance of the 02sampleexe The process object is used as a starting point for obtaining the object header that contains the pointer to the security descriptor protecting this object Listing 79
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kd> !process 0 0 07sampleexe Peb: 7ffde000 PROCESS ffbbc818 SessionId: 0 Cid: 01c4 DirBase: 0232e000 ObjectTable: e1112e10 HandleCount: Image: 07sampleexe ParentCid: 00ac 8
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kd> !object ffbbc818 Object: ffbbc818 Type: (812ee900) Process ObjectHeader: ffbbc800 HandleCount: 2 PointerCount: 7 kd> dt _OBJECT_HEADER ffbbc800 +0x000 PointerCount : 7 +0x004 HandleCount : 2 +0x004 NextToFree : 0x00000002 +0x008 Type : 0x812ee900 _OBJECT_TYPE +0x00c NameInfoOffset : 0 +0x00d HandleInfoOffset : 0 +0x00e QuotaInfoOffset : 0 +0x00f Flags : 0x20 +0x010 ObjectCreateInfo : 0x812ca8e8 _OBJECT_CREATE_INFORMATION +0x010 QuotaBlockCharged : 0x812ca8e8 +0x014 SecurityDescriptor : 0xe198bb92 +0x018 Body : _QUAD
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The header contains a pseudo pointer to the object security descriptor The pseudo pointer uses the last three bits to store state information unrelated to the security descriptor address This is possible because of the memory alignment used by the security descriptors After masking the least significant bits, the address points to a valid security descriptor that can be displayed with the !sd extension command, as shown in Listing 710
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Listing 710
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kd> !sd 0xe198bb92 & 0xFFFFFFF8 ->Revision: 0x1 ->Sbz1 : 0x0 ->Control : 0x8004 SE_DACL_PRESENT SE_SELF_RELATIVE ->Owner : S-1-5-21-1060284298-2111687655-1957994488-1003 ->Group : S-1-5-21-1060284298-2111687655-1957994488-513 ->Dacl : ->Dacl : ->AclRevision: 0x2 ->Dacl : ->Sbz1 : 0x0 ->Dacl : ->AclSize : 0x40 ->Dacl : ->AceCount : 0x2 ->Dacl : ->Sbz2 : 0x0 ->Dacl : ->Ace[0]: ->AceType: ACCESS_ALLOWED_ACE_TYPE ->Dacl : ->Ace[0]: ->AceFlags: 0x0 ->Dacl : ->Ace[0]: ->AceSize: 0x24 ->Dacl : ->Ace[0]: ->Mask : 0x001f0fff ->Dacl : ->Ace[0]: ->SID: S-1-5-21-1060284298-2111687655-1957994488->Dacl ->Dacl ->Dacl ->Dacl ->Dacl ->Sacl : : : : : : ->Ace[1]: ->Ace[1]: ->Ace[1]: ->Ace[1]: ->Ace[1]: is NULL ->AceType: ACCESS_ALLOWED_ACE_TYPE ->AceFlags: 0x0 ->AceSize: 0x14 ->Mask : 0x001f0fff ->SID: S-1-5-18
Because the security descriptor address is stored right before the object address, to simplify the operation of getting an object security descriptor, all steps required to get it can be combined in a single line, as follows: