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Over a relatively short period of time, the attitude toward software security has changed dramatically, both from the developer perspective, as well as from the user perspective Years ago, computers were mostly disconnected devices, and offline media, mostly floppy disks, was the main source of computer security problems The big problem at that time was represented by viruses Today, almost every computer security problem is remotely exploitable because of the high connectivity rate Older operating systems, such as Windows 95, provided no support for securing objects stored on the local computer The advent of the Windows NT code base in consumer markets made a secure C2-compliant kernel available to consumers Today, the consumer versions of the Windows operation system namely Windows XP Home and Windows Vista Home control the access to each object, and, as such, the chance increases for encountering an access denied failure Another push comes from the security community to always run a process with the least privileged user In this case, the host computer is isolated from security vulnerabilities that might exist in the applications How feasible is it to run the application as a nonadministrator Perhaps it is possible for a few applications, designed with security in mind, while the majority of them will still try to access a registry location or a file system location reserved only to administrators Hopefully, object security will become a first-class development pillar This chapter provides the information required to start the journey toward successful understanding and fixing of software security problems This chapter focuses primarily on steps executed when a legal operation completes with success of failure and doesn t describe unexpected behavior of code because of code defects (buffer overflow, integer overflow, buffer overrun), currently exploited by viruses, as it is covered very well in several reference books In this chapter, we explore the following:
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The basics of Windows security and how Windows Security actually works We summarize the essential information required to understand security-related problems How to inspect various security elements using the debugger extensions This section introduces several extension commands essential to debugging security aspects How to combine the techniques and information presented so far in the book to resolve problems caused by unexpected security restrictions 317
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Any Windows securable object, which can be represented by a handle to it, has security information attached to it, and it is protected using standard Windows security mechanisms The Windows security model uses three security concepts:
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The discretionary access control list (DACL): Describes what principal can use the object and how The identity of the user: Also known as principal The Security Reference Monitor (SRM): Uses the information available to restrict the access to the object protected by it
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DACLs associated with Windows securable objects are managed by the object creator itself The DACL is a component within another structure known as the security descriptor, which is a small piece of information stored along with the object in the secured store The security descriptor is retrieved from the secured store, and it is used every time the object is accessed by a new principal For example, the files security descriptors are stored in the NTFS file system, the registry keys security descriptors are stored in the registry hives, whereas the kernel objects have the security descriptors stored in the kernel address space The Windows SRM runs in the kernel address space, isolated from the user mode code Most securable objects are created and managed by kernel components that use the address separation to protect the associated security descriptor from the user mode components Because user mode components cannot use the kernel for implementing their own secure object brokers, several components in Windows implement custom security models using ideas similar to the Windows security mechanisms A custom object broker must enforce the mechanism for accessing its object In other words, when designing a securable objects broker, you must ensure that this object cannot be accessed by using any other mechanism In those cases, the object broker takes the SRM role and manages the object security descriptors in its proprietary ways To ensure functional consistency with the rest of the operating system and use the same user interface controls in security settings, the object broker will most likely use the same data structures as Windows SRM The other essential component in access control is the security principal, created and certified by the operating system The security principal is stored in an access token that aggregates the list of group security principals having the principal as a member, the list of special privileges granted by the operating system, plus other information used by the various components in the system The access to an object is represented by a collection of bits, each bit representing a right (specific to the object s nature) that can be granted or denied to a principal
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