Structures in Software

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Structures
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pieces of data associated with it: the account balance, the interest rate for the account, and the term, which is the number of months until maturity The rst two items can be represented as values of type double, and the number of months can be represented as a value of type int Display 61 shows the de nition of a structure called CDAccountV1 that can be used for this kind of account (The V1 stands for version 1 We will de ne an improved version later in this chapter)
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Display 61 A Structure Definition (part 1 of 2)
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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 //Program to demonstrate the CDAccountV1 structure type #include <iostream> using namespace std; //Structure for a bank certificate of deposit: struct CDAccountV1 { double balance; double interestRate; int term;//months until maturity };
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An improved version of this structure will be given later in this chapter
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void getData(CDAccountV1& theAccount); //Postcondition: theAccountbalance, theAccountinterestRate, and //theAccountterm have been given values that the user entered at the keyboard int main( ) { CDAccountV1 account; getData(account); double rateFraction, interest; rateFraction = accountinterestRate/1000; interest = accountbalance*(rateFraction*(accountterm/120)); accountbalance = accountbalance + interest; coutsetf(ios::fixed); coutsetf(ios::showpoint); coutprecision(2); cout << "When your CD matures in " << accountterm << " months,\n" << "it will have a balance of $" << accountbalance << endl; return 0; }
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Structures and Classes
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Display 61 A Structure Definition (part 2 of 2)
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31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 //Uses iostream: void getData(CDAccountV1& theAccount) { cout << "Enter account balance: $"; cin >> theAccountbalance; cout << "Enter account interest rate: "; cin >> theAccountinterestRate; cout << "Enter the number of months until maturity: "; cin >> theAccountterm; }
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SAMPLE DIALOGUE
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Enter account balance: $10000 Enter account interest rate: 100 Enter the number of months until maturity: 6 When your CD matures in 6 months, it will have a balance of $10500
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s STRUCTURE TYPES
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The structure de nition in Display 61 is as follows:
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struct CDAccountV1 { double balance; double interestRate; int term;//months until maturity }; struct
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structure tag
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member name
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where to place a structure definition
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The keyword struct announces that this is a structure type de nition The identi er CDAccountV1 is the name of the structure type, which is known as the structure tag The structure tag can be any legal identi er that is not a keyword Although this is not required by the C++ language, structure tags are usually spelled starting with an uppercase letter The identi ers declared inside the braces, {}, are called member names As illustrated in this example, a structure type de nition ends with both a brace, }, and a semicolon A structure de nition is usually placed outside any function de nition (in the same way that globally de ned constant declarations are placed outside all function de nitions) The structure type is then a global de nition that is available to all the code that follows the structure de nition Once a structure type de nition has been given, the structure type can be used just like the prede ned types int, char, and so forth Note that in Display 61 the structure
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Structures
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type CDAccountV1 is used to declare a variable in the function main and is used as the name of the parameter type for the function getData A structure variable can hold values just like any other variable can A structure value is a collection of smaller values called member values There is one member value for each member name declared in the structure de nition For example, a value of the type CDAccountV1 is a collection of three member values, two of type double and one of type int The member values that together make up the structure value are stored in member variables, which we discuss next Each structure type speci es a list of member names In Display 61 the structure CDAccountV1 has three member names: balance, interestRate, and term Each of these member names can be used to pick out one smaller variable that is a part of the larger structure variable These smaller variables are called member variables Member variables are speci ed by giving the name of the structure variable followed by a dot and then the member name For example, if account is a structure variable of type CDAccountV1 (as declared in Display 61), then the structure variable account has the following three member variables: