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63 64 65 66 for (int index = 0; index < numberUsed; index++) cout << a[index] << " differs from average by " << (a[index] - average) << endl; }
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This program reads golf scores and shows how much each differs from the average Enter golf scores: Enter up to 10 nonnegative whole numbers Mark the end of the list with a negative number 69 74 68 -1 Average of the 3 scores = 703333 The scores are: 69 differs from average by -133333 74 differs from average by 366667 68 differs from average by -233333
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A common programming task is to search an array for a given value For example, the array may contain the student numbers for all students in a given course To tell whether a particular student is enrolled, the array is searched to see if it contains the student s number The simple program in Display 56 fills an array and then searches the array for values specified by the user A real application program would be much more elaborate, but this shows all the essentials of the sequential search algorithm The sequential search is the most straightforward searching algorithm you could imagine: The program looks at the array elements in order, first to last, to see if the target number is equal to any of the array elements In Display 56 the function search is used to search the array When searching an array, you often want to know more than simply whether or not the target value is in the array If the target value is in the array, you often want to know the index of the indexed variable holding that target value, since the index may serve as a guide to some additional information about the target value Therefore, we designed the function search to return an index giving the location of the target value in the array, provided the target value is, in fact, in the array If the target value is not in the array, search returns -1 Let s look at the function search in a little more detail The function search uses a while loop to check the array elements one after the other to see whether any of them equals the target value The variable found is used as a flag to record whether or not the target element has been found If the target element is found in the array, found is set to true, which in turn ends the while loop
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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 //Searches a partially filled array of nonnegative integers #include <iostream> using namespace std; const int DECLARED_SIZE = 20; void fillArray(int a[], int size, int& numberUsed); //Precondition: size is the declared size of the array a //Postcondition: numberUsed is the number of values stored in a //a[0] through a[numberUsed-1] have been filled with //nonnegative integers read from the keyboard int search(const int a[], int numberUsed, int target); //Precondition: numberUsed is <= the declared size of a //Also, a[0] through a[numberUsed -1] have values //Returns the first index such that a[index] == target, //provided there is such an index; otherwise, returns -1 int main( ) { int arr[DECLARED_SIZE], listSize, target; fillArray(arr, DECLARED_SIZE, listSize); char ans; int result; do { cout << "Enter a number to search for: "; cin >> target; result = search(arr, listSize, target); if (result == -1) cout << target << " is not on the list\n"; else cout << target << " is stored in array position " << result << endl << "(Remember: The first position is 0)\n"; cout << "Search again (y/n followed by Return): "; cin >> ans; } while ((ans != n ) && (ans != N )); cout << "End of program\n"; return 0; } void fillArray(int a[], int size, int& numberUsed)
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