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SYNTAX
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Type_Returned Function_Name(, Base_Type Array_Name[],);
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EXAMPLE
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void sumArray(double& sum, double a[], int size);
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constant array parameter
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position An array parameter that is modi ed with a const is called a constant array parameter For example, the following function outputs the values in an array but does not change the values in the array:
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void showTheWorld(int a[], int sizeOfa) //Precondition: sizeOfa is the declared size of the array a //All indexed variables of a have been given values //Postcondition: The values in a have been written to the screen { cout << "The array contains the following values:\n"; for (int i = 0; i < sizeOfa; i++) cout << a[i] << " "; cout << endl; }
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This function will work ne However, as an added safety measure, you can add the modi er const to the function heading as follows:
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void showTheWorld(const int a[], int sizeOfa)
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With the addition of this modi er const, the computer will issue an error message if your function de nition contains a mistake that changes any of the values in the array argument For example, the following is a version of the function showTheWorld that contains a mistake that inadvertently changes the value of the array argument Fortunately, this version of the function de nition includes the modi er const, so that an error message will tell us that the array a has been changed This error message will help to explain the mistake:
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void showTheWorld(const int a[], int sizeOfa) //Precondition: sizeOfa is the declared size of the array a //All indexed variables of a have been given values //Postcondition: The values in a have been written to the screen { cout << "The array contains the following values:\n"; for (int i = 0; i < sizeOfa; a[i]++) cout << a[i] << " "; Mistake, but the compiler cout << endl; will not catch it unless you } use the const modifier
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If we had not used the const modi er in the above function de nition and if we made the mistake shown, the function would compile and run with no error messages However, the code would contain an in nite loop that continually increments a[0] and writes its new value to the screen The problem with this incorrect version of showTheWorld is that the wrong item is incremented in the for loop The indexed variable a[i] is incremented, but it should be the index i that is incremented In this incorrect version, the index i starts with the value 0 and that value is never changed But a[i], which is the same as a[0], is incremented When the indexed variable a[i] is incremented, that changes a value in the array, and since we included the modi er const, the computer will issue a warning message That error message should serve as a clue to what is wrong You normally have a function declaration in your program in addition to the function de nition When you use the const modi er in a function de nition, you must also use it in the function declaration so that the function heading and the function declaration are consistent The modi er const can be used with any kind of parameter, but it is normally used only with array parameters and call-by-reference parameters for classes, which are discussed in s 6 and 7
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OF const
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PARAMETERS
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The const parameter modifier is an all-or-nothing proposition If you use it for one array parameter of a particular type, then you should use it for every other array parameter that has that type and that is not changed by the function The reason has to do with function calls within function
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