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C++ allows you to give two or more different de nitions to the same function name, which means you can reuse names that have strong intuitive appeal across a variety of situations For example, you could have three functions called max: one that computes the largest of two numbers, another that computes the largest of three numbers, and yet another that computes the largest of four numbers Giving two (or more) function overloading de nitions for the same function name is called overloading the function name
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Suppose you are writing a program that requires you to compute the average of two numbers You might use the following function de nition:
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double ave(double n1, double n2) { return ((n1 + n2)/20); }
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Now suppose your program also requires a function to compute the average of three numbers You might de ne a new function called ave3 as follows:
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double ave3(double n1, double n2, double n3) { return ((n1 + n2 + n3)/30); }
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This will work, and in many programming languages you have no choice but to do something like this However, C++ overloading allows for a more elegant solution In C++ you can simply use the same function name ave for both functions In C++ you can use the following function de nition in place of the function de nition ave3:
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double ave(double n1, double n2, double n3) { return ((n1 + n2 + n3)/30); }
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so that the function name ave then has two de nitions This is an example of overloading In this case we have overloaded the function name ave Display 46 embeds these two function de nitions for ave into a complete sample program Be sure to notice that each function de nition has its own declaration (prototype) The compiler can tell which function de nition to use by checking the number and types of the arguments in a function call In the program in Display 46, one of the functions called ave has two arguments and the other has three arguments When there are two arguments in a function call, the rst de nition applies When there are three arguments in a function call, the second de nition applies
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If you have two or more function definitions for the same function name, that is called overloading When you overload a function name, the function definitions must have different numbers of formal parameters or some formal parameters of different types When there is a function call, the compiler uses the function definition whose number of formal parameters and types of formal parameters match the arguments in the function call
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Whenever you give two or more de nitions to the same function name, the various function de nitions must have different speci cations for their arguments; that is, any two function de nitions that have the same function name must use different numbers of formal parameters or have one or more parameters of different types (or both) Notice that when you overload a function name, the declarations for the two different de nitions must differ in their formal parameters You cannot overload a function name by giving two de nitions that differ only in the type of the value returned Nor can you
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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 //Illustrates overloading the function name ave #include <iostream> using namespace std; double ave(double n1, double n2); //Returns the average of the two numbers n1 and n2 double ave(double n1, double n2, double n3); //Returns the average of the three numbers n1, n2, and n3 int main( ) { cout << "The average of 20, 25, and 30 is " << ave(20, 25, 30) << endl; cout << "The average of 45 and 55 is " << ave(45, 55) << endl; return 0; } double ave(double n1, double n2) { return ((n1 + n2)/20); }
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